People centered design

By applying new and better techniques as entrepreneur during devising for the uses, there innovative and new ideas arise which be will see not only functional but also once more very user-friendly and easily use , can. Dis is only at beruiken by devise the eyes of the user even, therefore the user process this to involve at the design is called people centered design. People centered design as an aim deeper of digging then a normal research would do, therefore deeper in will on the habits, the feelings, the uses and the problems of the user and these vervolgens map. At people centered design is not it thus the intention that the user adapts to the product, but that correctly will adapt the product to the user. Because the user and the designer work well together get you therefore a product which the most meet requirements of both parties.

People centered design have arisen in 1960s then the users saw that nevertheless important it was that more attention was given on the large decisions which were related to the user. For that time the most of products were not use almost without guide, and with guide also not always. When technology really rise came and more and more seemed that the user to forget became and that functions was preferred above them people centered design were invented.

There are a number of aspects to which a product must satisfy centered design for according to people successful to be

  • in the visual and emotional area the product must provoke the good response. Therefore you must be provoked the action to want carry out which the product of you desires, and the feeling that the product has wanted you use where it intends for is.
  • It is important that the product connects well on the dimensions and handiness of the target group where you devise the product for. Therefore the product must be ergonomic devised. So that the user in a pleasant manner can use the product.
  • The product must synoptic, therefore not too much extra unnecessary functions (what frequently to have now happened with as reason that it is simply possible therefore for which not), these extra functions make the product complex and impractical.
  • Hou account that each country has its own culture and that in every culture other demands can be made to a product. A heap problems can take into account prevent.

The discovery of people centered design has a heap manners and techniques let arise. At all these techniques the user is centrally put and by the designer and its team in the design process taken along. And it is gezocht there together to the ideal design for both user and designer.


Contextmapping meant litterally: map use of the context of the product.

All aspects (physically, cultural, social, etc.) that influence have a component of the contextmap on the perception of a product to be.

Contextmapping exist from a number of research techniques which is devised to obtain most it from a user. These techniques are means to invite document parts of their life (therefore also parts of their perception) people.

People are not always aware of all aspects which influence their daily perception, them become consciously only of these aspects if they himself are helped improve to look at to their perception.

This is possible for example by letting make the user something, for example in the form of a collage, and vervolgens the person to let tell why he has made it in the way he made it and what is feelings and emotions were.

By giving them the objects to express itself, creates them information on their perception.

The contextmapping process exist from 6 parts

  1. Preparation
  2. Sensitizing
  3. Research
  4. Analysis
  5. communication
  6. continuation


During the preparation become the aims, planning, volunteers, research techniques, etc. Established and chosen by the research workers.


sensitizing a process where the volunteers have been encouraged, motivated and aware are made to think, reflect and examining their personal context in their own time and surroundings. Sensitizing exist from some small activities or exercises. The quality of the research frequently depends on how well and how long there gesensitized are. The outcome of these small exercises does not need be incorporated further in the research himself.

Some techniques which belong be to contextmapping:

The Customer journey

Customer journey a technique that has been used can become to improve a service by to invent how the users use of the service.

At Customer journey you map the interaction and emotion of the user during living the service with respect to course of the time . This happens by letting tell the user its experience and on paper at put in the form of a time line and then by interaction to moment if to indicate what there by him its gone went.

Get you a better insight of the emotional context during the interaction moments during the perception. What happened, during and after the contact moments. This produces insight in the expectations and appraisals of the customer.

The things that gives to customer journey to are:

  • How the current and future users use of the service and what takes place there for interactions during the perception.
  • How the users observe the service during each inteactie and how the user gladly that the perception would be
  • The obstakels which the user comes against during the perception.


Customer journey encourage a more participating treatment for service design and improvement.


Unfortunately are related journey customer only to the users of the service and not a broader target group around.


Storyboard are a collage of photograph and blades which lie on this way an order that the entirely tale told. By to use of storyboard a designer can show well how a product will work or how a product at the moment is used and this way come where the problems sit.


A collage is a collection of photograph, blades, bits text and other 2D visual things which is added and entirely forms which makes a certain point of view or must call a certain emotion or feeling. It does not seem told on storyboard but directly a tale.


Persona fast visual reproductions of a certain user group have been summarised in one person. Persona consider as a type collage where the person central state. The persona those during the design process are used care that the designer and its team are reminded the complete time to the users after whom they to for devising to be ensures, this that the product is devised especially thus for the persons has been reflected in the persona. It is not possible one make persona for the complete user group therefore persona never the exact reproduction will be of the user group but a more adoptive average. But because the designer and its team have established the persona themselves the persona are use nevertheless very well during the design process.

To observe

A good alternative for examining yourself, is observing users or people who carried voluntarily as users and who want pass through for you the perception.

The bests are to start with identifying experience users who you can provide with relevant information since they use probably the product already longer than the designer or research worker is them therefore a good source of information. Most of people will not find it spoken normally terrible to cooperate and their opinion if to give you ask them pleasantly approached delicately and if they would want you help with a small research.

It is well a list ask take along if you try people afterwards what wants ask questions, but you must there pay attention that but it no formal inquiry becomes make a conversation there. Question for example to ongestructureerde choices and late describes them and give their opinion concerning what their important finds and what you important finds and discusses deeper things which you are notable or where you are curiously to.

Document what is told you, what you is impression of what is told you during if right after the conversation so that you forget no important details.

Pay attention at your observation to or the user himself acquired characteristics to the spot have made, and others things which look forward to there difficult or oddly. Document also which the user group is and the circumstances in which the research takes place.

After examining experienced users, look thus well to inexpert users, these can your indicate on problems where experience users already to has got used and those therefore them to therefore no longer be notable.

If you can find no inexpert users can you to try users reduce level by placing something new in the perception.

Inexpert is or can seem shameful be, your volunteers for this reason insure that you zoekt that to errors in the service and not in the user them therefore especially the design must give the debt and not itself.

You a basis gain aim without detailed instructions of the way ask volunteers the aim is of gaining. For example an aim as a wheel sms with this tel. or

The colour changes institutions of this display device.

Questions put during the operation are a good manner to information come. But you do not have you volunteer help if them fixed to come sit (unless they, the other or product endanger)


At interview it is just like at observation important that you the different user levels approached. Therefore the extreme users (the real specialists in the field of the product) since these you can more tell than the average user. But also the average user must asked become just like the exactly starting users since these walk towards against problems where the longer users have already got used to.

It is important that why ask as much as possible avoid you. Why questions happen, as it happens, intimidating and can infinitely long continue. Since on each answer the question for which? keen can become.

Couple of questions a beetje largely so that that can ask you around and not each time must the same ask question. Because of this have you the possibility the problem and of examining the product of several angles.


More gaver et already defined probes as `collections or evocative ask meant to elicit inspirational responses from people (Collections of evocatieve tasks meant ominspirerende elicit responses of people). At a method with probes users are not observed directly, but they get probes (cut down objects, notebooks, sign, etc) in bruikleen. These uses they during a certain period and hand in them then. So that they can be analysed.

Probes provide to a picture on of a longer period from one's life at respects of the moment prerecordings of an interview or observation. Also no research worker is necessary that constant present is there at probes.

Probes provide generally visual material also much on from which design teams can obtain much inspiration, what can lead to many ideas. The probes also work as a type sensitizer since these ensure that the users after to will think concerning their activities which are normally obvious. How at a later interview deeper on the questions of the research worker in are possible them will.

2D or 3D Participatory modeling

The aim of 2D or 3D participatory modeling is get insight in the manner of how people live a space or product and how they would feel themselves most pleasant in if how they would see it gladly.

The user is asked by means of sliding blades or small models in a certain area or space, something to arrange or put down in a manner how they it gladly, and tell their feeling and emotions. on this basis is see what pleasant finds users and what is notable them. This is especially skilful for devising a space or devising for something in a space where already several things stand.

Stikkers stick

Stikkers plakken are a form of an interview with 2D Participatory. It exists from cuts down with stikkers and a word with the opposed word on the other side of the cross (for example well/bad, nicely/ugly , pleasure/work, strenuous/onspannend etc) cuts down with a cross with on each end of the cross, it is important that you many several types stikkers used who several topic to raise. It is the intention that the genterviewde the stikkers sticks on the spot on cuts down where he or she feels that it the bests are appropriate. Also it is important that the genterviewde during sticking told of the stikkers why he or they which stikker where sticks.

From this research method is what kind of read feelings people at a certain occupation or have a certain blade. So that you get a general picture of what people pleasant find.

Coperative design

The user in the design process is taken along entirely as of the specialists who think concerning the design. The stylist and user cooperate closely together a product reach which is to everyone requirements satisfies.

This research technique assumes the principle an interview with as bijkomstigheid. That the interview is related to devising the product where research becomes after done. And that on for example krijtbord the design and a simultaneously signed drawer minute are adapted. The research worker will build inch by inch the product and the group questions how they want let look forward to each thing (therefore component for component for example. We start at the feet, which form must it approximately and which large. As soon as is entirely signed the research worker can examine each component with the group once more to if look at it connects, however, on whole. If this is done with some groups get you a reasonable picture what wants the target group.

A disadvantage to this technique is that it concerns only at the latest and the person questioned does not have probably much insight in proportions or the dimensions of the objects which must be placed in the product.

The advantage is that you right anticipates on the wishes of the person questioned and if you the outcomes play on then to a designer who she combines with for example an ergonomic research is possible these adapting and finishing to a product which there not only looks forward to such as the user that wants but also user-friendly is.

Own research method

Trial and error prototyping

At this technique start you with a design which you develop to a prototype. Then a number of volunteers lets you use of your prototype followed by of above research techniques. By means of the outcomes you design planes himself at and again weerwerk you him to a prototype and exhaust you him to test. This continues repeat you to your satisfied is with the design.

The advantage of this technique is that you assume your own design and these adapt to the user as a result of which your product continues radiate you vision but user-friendly is.

A disadvantage is, however, that each time make a new design and a new prototype leaves tests by a group volunteers with then a next research much time and money costs. And for this reason only really applicable is by companies which have enough time much money and this, carry out because they want gladly their own design doorduwen but user-friendly want.


Much of techniques complete each other complete good if they are used in same the design process. It is thus malignant superior later several use techniques and the outcome to combine to be able make this way a very vast but very qualitative analysis. The qualitative information which is collected during the research is very several. There many tales and anecdotes sit in the things which have created the volunteers during the research. This must become analysed and are looked at if unexpected things emerge to broaden the picture of the research workers.


The last step is the results in the design conduct case. During the earlier phases in the design process the results can inform the stylists and inspire. More interactive techniques can reinforce the term of the stylists to imagine oneself itself in the users and this way a user-friendly product to reach.


In short if you have wanted a product or a service and to treads to users or a product or service wants will devise to be aimed at users. Then you must involve yourself target group users in the research doormiddel of research techniques where them itself are at issue. If this is well tackled you eventual enough insight to devise or adapt a product or service this way so that the user is commissioned to use it, it gets gladly uses and weet how he must use without he himself house must garden and kitchen use methods to improve whereas it, it nevertheless remains a functional product or service or becomes.



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