Development of urban agriculture


1.1 Overview

Water is the basic necessity of life. The Scholars says if the III world war to be happen that would be because of water. In this context of this it is the duty of every citizen to use water in a sustainable way. In the present scenario it is essential to take at most attention to unlimited pollution of the water bodies. It was shown that the damage costs in developing countries are higher than those in developed countries (Pearce David and Warford, 1993). According to their estimates the environmental costs in the developing countries were about 5% of their GDP. India is good at technologies aspects in designing the various levels of treatment strategies and but it is crucial in management of these water resources as agriculture is facing a many pitfalls. Substantial progress has been made on the physical and technical front, but institutional development has lagged seriously behind. Institutional organization and management in the given social, economic and political setting is becoming a major problem and is posing a serious challenge (Gandhi 2007). Hyderabad is one of the megacities of India progressing towards economic development in terms of industrialization and growth in population. Increase in population has been affected welfare losses in terms of pollution, especially water pollution. Water pollution has affected the agricultural activities and also the health of the persons. The main source of water pollution includes sewage and untreated industrial waste water from the urban areas of Hyderabad.

Hyderabad has various water resources for its consumption, which includes both surface water and groundwater. The rivers form the major sources for domestic industrial and agricultural activities. Musi river flows through the centre of the Hyderabad city that is mainly utilized for drinking water and domestic water purpose and further the downstream water is utilized for the irrigation for growing crops. The Musi River has been polluted both by the industries and the domestic sewage so much so that the water has become unfit for growing of the agricultural crops and low crop productivity, and affecting the lives of the farmers at the nearby areas. The farmers are exposed to many health hazards reducing the economic activity of the well-being.

Efforts to save Musi are important as a means of domestic water use and its sanitation. Problems related to Musi have come to the forefront basically due to the rapid urbanization, growing population and industrialization. Urbanization in turn leads to the consumption of more water leading to production of more sewage. The growing population demanding larger water supply generates large quantities of sewage, which in turn paves for the proper sanitation of the city and the water sources where these wastes are dumped in. It is necessary to ensure that only the treated effluents enter the Musi River.

The river is classified into 3 distinctive geographical regions

a) Area upstream of HUA: two main reservoirs constructed to prevent floods also acting as drinking water sources.

b) Area within HUA: passes through main historical places and receives majority of pollutants

c) Downstream of HUA: the river is polluted heavily from both domestic sewerage and industrial effluents whose water is classified as E i.e. worst quality under National River Conservation Plan.

As per the information from the HMWSSB, a total of 2000 MLD water is supplied daily Urban area of Hyderabad out of which The Hyderabad city generates 1600 MLD of sewage and out of which only 719 MLD is treated and rest 881 MLD is left directly to the river Musi.

The effective institutions are required for the sustenance of the river water for further usage. The proper governance and management through institutions are important in reducing the water pollution.

With this background the objective of the study is To analyze the institutions and governance of domestic sewage treatment in Hyderabad

1.2.Scope and limitation of the study:

The study was entirely based on the secondary data reviewing the existing literatures to analyse the existing pollution situation and the governance structures of the Musi river. Entire study is based only on the Musi river. There is a dearth of studies in studying the governance structures exactly in a way they are functioning. The study is concentrated only on the sewage of the Hyderabad region, industrial pollution is not taken into consideration which is also one of the major source of pollution.

2. Methodology

The study uses Institutions of sustainability framework developed by Hagedorn. Wherein use of framework dealing with rules, institutions and the governance structures in sewage treatment and pollution control in Hyderabad, where there is a co-ordination between the human and ecological system. The high transaction of pollution of river Musi causing unhygienic unhealthy and depleting water resource due to the human activities that has directed to development of the institutions (rules) through the major governance structures like HMWSS&SB, MCH, HUDA.

The brief description of these institutional governance structures, actors and transactions is given in the forthcoming chapter.


3.1.1. The various organisations involved in the management of Musi river basin

Governmental organization: Four government organizations which play a vital role in governing pollution of river are:

Andhra Pradesh Pollution Control Board (APPCB): it is responsible for addressing the pollution issues through regulation and control mechanisms. Main organization for management of pollution and environmental degradation, mainly involved in industrial waste.

Hyderabad Metropolitan Water Supply and Sewerage Board (HMWSS&SB): Responsible for the supply of potable water to Hyderabad. It is responsible to address the basic infrastructure to sewage system. The basic objective is "To provide its customers with a regular supply of wholesome water and reliable service for the disposal of domestic sewage at reasonable costs".

Municipal Corporation of Hyderabad (MCH): The main activities of which include Health and Sanitation, Urban Community Development (slum development), engineering, horticulture, veterinary, garbage schemes and plantation schemes.

Hyderabad Urban Development Authority (HUDA): The responsibility of HUDA is to carry out a civic survey and prepare a Master plan for the area which will delineate the development area into various zones for the purpose of development.

The other government organizations which are as also responsible for governing pollution are as follows:

Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB): It is at the central level and the state level pollution control board, i.e. APPCB has to be guided by this. Unfortunately there are Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) for new constructions

As per the provisions of EIA Notification of 1994 (amended in 2006), issued by MoEF, any building producing more than 50,000 liters of wastewater/day or housing more than 1,000 people has to have an EIA done and has to undergo public hearing to get the feedback of people likely to be impacted by it. But it is rarely followed. To protect vulnerable streams a important provision under section 17 (1) (k) of the WPA is the power of effluents to be discharged into any particular streams, but no such special standards have been made for Musi

Common Effluent Treatment Plants (CETP's): Particularly for industries, here the treated effluents of the industries finally end up in the STP at Amberpet, where it is diluted with domestic sewage. Finally, the mixture of this treated water is left into the Musi.

The organizations, institutions policies are dynamic from period to period development goes on. The various levels of co-ordination needed are not perfectly defined nor understood. To study the current state of affairs and bringing changes, one has to see the interfaces of the networks and possible constraints within them. Awareness among citizens, comprehension among political class bureaucrats and civil society groups is required.

3.2 Institutional analysis

Institutional analysis gives the complex relationship that exists among the actors. sewage treatment plants are crucial for proper disposal of the domestic sewage, generated by the city, which helps in conserving the environmental quality of the Musi and the Hyderabad city. The necessary steps has to be taken at this time, to plan for the present and future development considering the bad effects of pollution as they were not treated seriously in the past which as become a hectic today. There are many pitfalls in the governance of the above governance structures and institutions. To mention

1. The major pollution governing body APPCB is mainly focusing on the regulation and control mechanism on the industrial pollution. Under the APPCB "The water (prevention & control of pollution) act, 1974". The functions are

2. Many of the households in the Hyderabad don't have the water meters that in turn affect the collection of cess, and in turn result in improper management of the water supply and maintenance. The major reason is due to the lack of proper drinking water supply to the households. The drawback is due to the improper governance of the actors involved in HMWSS&SB. The board is responsible for sewage conveyance, treatment and disposal, but the work is unsatisfactory due to lack of funds, political will and public awareness. The board has only two STP's during 2006 which treat only 138 MLD which is a meager quantity of total sewage generated by the city. This has lead to huge pollution and contamination of the water body and affecting the environment. Under The Hyderabad Metropolitan Water supply and Sewerage Act, 1989 ( 15 of 1989) (WBA) the water supply and sewerage in HUA by HMWSSB are regulated. Under section 54 of the act it is prohibited to discharge effluents that cause nuisance or danger to public health. Under section specifies that pre-treatment of effluents which have a potential to adversely affect the infrastructure is compulsory before discharge into sewers.

3. The main activities of the Municipal Corporation of Hyderabad is to look into health, sanitation. There are many slums around the river Musi and are living in very unhygienic condition.

4. There are many challenges confronting by departments for example for building of sewage treatment plants, the land availability at the proper location and acquisition is a major challenge.

5. Government Order 111 issued by the Supreme Court, according to which there is a restriction of land use within the 10 km radius of the lakes. Still today mining activity in and around the Musi is going on which indicates the weakness of the institutions and organizations.

3.3 Musi related programmes by Government and NGO'S their strengths and weaknesses

3.3.1 Musi related programmes/activities by the government actors

Since 1997 three proposals had been floated or partly executed or expanded

1. Nandanavanam: for a length of 4 km along Musi from Puranapul to Chaderghat Bridge. Proposed localized STP's and rationalization of storm water drains use of public lands.

2. Proposal by Ar.Hafeez Contractor, Mumbai 2005 : proposed for utilizing the part of the river area for greenery and a large chunk abutting the river for commercial exploitation to help finance the project. It failed to realize the aspirations of the people directly affected by the project.

3.Save Musi: by the Government of Andhra Pradesh 2006: divides Musi into three continuous stretches viz. ecological, heritage and metropolitan precincts, each from Tippukum Bridge to Puranapul to Chaderghat to Nagole Ring Road Bridge,7km,4km.8 km respectively.

Proposed intercepting and diversion sewers along Musi to stop sewage entering the river. Incorporates NRCP funding (70% of the cost and remaining funded from state government (Mekala, 2007)) for establishing/upgrading 4 STP's of 592 MLD treatment capacity, all along the river viz. at Attapur, Amberpet, Nallacheruvu, and Nagole.

To revive Musi central government has given a financial aid to The Municipal Corporation of Hyderabad to an extent of 51.26 crores as per the proposal submitted on JNNURM.

Project involves MCH, HUDA and HMWS&SB.

It remains as a challenge how the people factor will be dealt with. As an issue of rehabilitation livelihoods are sensitive, and the government may have to carefully and sensitively involve the people to ensure success while also conserving Musi River.

Critiques/Failure of Save Musi Campaign

The government has not taken care to clean pollution in Musi for a long time, and the pollution has reached very high. Untreated sewage and industrial effluents that has entered the river has created negative effects especially on the downstream habitat affecting ecology and environmental quality. The water has become unfit for both drinking and irrigation which was once a major source for both the purpose particularly for drinking. Then the government launched Nandanavanam project mainly for beautifying the Musi by channelizing the flow of sewage water to the river through a small lined canal in the middle of the river and using the reclaimed part of river bed for commercial and aesthetic activities. But this project was not successful as it left the basic idea of conservation of Musi from pollution and had a number of protests from the people.

Under National River Conservation Plan (NRCP) committed to pump money for abatement of pollution in Musi as it was identified as one of the most polluted river of India. During 2000 Government of Andhra Pradesh announced a project called Project for Abatement of Pollution in River Musi with a plan to build STP's to treat all the sewage entering the river. But was a failure due to delay in sanctioning of funds from the central government, inspite of receiving funds which covers the capital cost of treatment plants but funds fails to cover the operation and maintenance costs (Mekala, 2007). The major problem is the quality of the treatment in the proposed STP's. The efficiency of the treated water will be very less if the treated water is again left to the river where it gets mixed up with the normal sewage water. And also the AP pollution control board has failed to regulate the illegal discharge of effluent into Musi. Ideally the treated water after treatment could be used for secondary purpose and hence recycling is effective

The salient features of the NRCP are:

A pre-feasibility Project report was prepared for Rs. 295.00 crores for the abatement of pollution of River Musi and forwarded by the state government to the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India.

The project envisages to intercept and diver the dry weather flows from storm water drains flowing to the river Musi, in the stretches of the Musi river flowing within the city limits and to transmit the same by conveying mains of 33 kms. Long to the sewage treatment plants at 5 places, and let out the treated effluents in to the river Musi either directly or by applying on land.

3.3.2 Musi related activity by actors of Non-Governmental organizations

Land ownership is a major issue. After river widens at Chaderghat Bridge along both side of the river on lands there are Dhobi Ghats and Para-grass which is fodder for livestock. Most of the human settlement along the side of the river was encroachment on the environs of the river and contributing to lot of pollution. Most of the people who are residing along the river bed are economically poor. The root causes are lack of basic necessities of life. The failure of government in planning for poor has led to the creation of these unhygienic living settlements.

4. Addressing Water/ lack of water in Musi and sewage treatment

It is estimated that 1600 MLD of sewage is generated by the city of the total 2000 MLD water supplied to the city, most of which drains back to Musi. It is the only sewage that flows in the river if there is a lack of rainfall. Hence it is at most important to treat the sewage. Musi has almost dried. One of the major reasons is change in drainage pattern of Hyderabad Urban region affecting the free flow of water into the Musi from various directions due to improper and faulty drainage.

Many households have septic tanks for the disposal which is not recommended. Large parts of Hyderabad don't have underground sewer systems, (even for MCH which covers 9% of the HUDA has less then 70% of the underground sewerage). Or the sewer lines are combined with storm lines which will carry the wastes ultimately to river. Problem further aggravates when the industrial effluents enter the river. Thus causing the adverse effects on health and economy of the people who are dependent on water for their survival.

It is at the Musi at where the developmental activities took place. The pollution causing the direct effects on the Musi itself while there are issues indirectly affecting the city of Hyderabad.

Table:1 Economic Analysis of Cost of treatment and amount that each household need to pay to bring to the required quality standards

Water Quality        INR/kl       INR/8kl @ 80% outflow      INR/month/hh       INR/year/hh
Boatable Quality     1.4          11.2                       42.7*              512.4
Fishable Quality     6.4          51.2                       82.7*              992.4
Swimmable Quality      9          72                        103.5*              1242

A fixed cost of INR 31.50 for maintenance of sewer lines is added to the cost of treatment to arrive at this figure.

Source: Mekala(2007)

About 80% of the water supplied comes as sewage.From the study conducted by Mekala (2007) the interesting results were drawn that every household was paying INR 278, as against the calculated amount of atleast INR 512.4 to bring the Musi water to atleast boatable quality, there exists a wide gap between the amount paying and the amount payable. Thus here institutions are required to bridge the gap so that the Musi is drawn upto to the required quality standards.

5. Future water requirements and sewage generation

As per the HWSS&SB water demand projections of the future growing population is as given in the table 2. The demand has far reached the projections, As per the available data from HWSS&SB the water supplied at present is 2000MLD. Even considering the previous projections of the water demand, the sewage water also increases as the demand for water increases. The amount of water treated is very less compared to the amount of sewage generated. It further will multiply in the future days as population grows. There are many loop holes in the present sewerage system that has to be addressed to maintain the indicated capacity of the treatment plants. Further the newer technologies and changes in the system are atmost important for the conservation and sustainability of the Musi river.

The total sewage treating capacity of the City at present is 719 MLD. 5 new a STP's were proposed under NRCP for river Musi to tackle the sewage generated in the city. Projections of water demand 2021 is 2214 MLD and sewage generated is 1771 MLD, indicating a large gap of treatment even if all the STP's work at the expected capacity as indicated in table 2.

6. Implications and Recommendations:

Proper sewerage and drainage planning for the existing developed area and future growth areas in advance.

Care taken for the proper functioning of the sewage treatment plants

Development of proper sewerage system which a big lacunae in large parts of city still today.

Domestic waste should be treated totally. The environment conservation plan for Hyderabad should include a total sanitation plan for today and tomorrow.

Development of urban agriculture

Civil society committees and involvement of people groups to monitor and supervise STP's

In project planning process the need of affected people to be considered.

For economically backward sections resettlement and rehabilitation need to be worked out

Education and awareness among the people on bad effects of sewage and its impact on the health, conservation of natural heritage.

7. Conclusions:

Urbanization is contemporary with the pollution. Like in many other cities even in Hyderabad urbanization is associated with the pollution. Enormous amount of waste water is generated everyday of most of which enters the water bodies, posing environmental and human risk. Like other natural resource Musi is owned by people of the state and in turn the government elected by the people is responsible for the conservation and proper management of Musi. Rivers are community resources, thus properly utilized and derive benefits from the natural resource. Government intervention are mainly at the engineering work effects like usage of rivers for the disposal of the sewerage and drainage discharge, constructions of dams to tackle floods and construction of irrigating structures. But it is also requires to look at social and economic linkages. (?) The present situation is a result of previous improper planning, hence proper planning and management is essential for survival of today and preservation for tomorrow in a sustainable way. The pollution of the Musi which includes sewage and others has already created havoc on the lives of the Hyderabad, affecting almost every household. Hence awareness and actions among the citizens are essentially needed in preventing the degradation of this natural resource. It has already reached an alarming level the negligence at this time will have to pay significantly in the future.

Major cause of water pollution in river Musi are untreated domestic sewage, harmful industrial effluents let into water. It is necessary to maintain the healthy Musi for the coming days. It is important for the city of Hyderabad to conserve the past for the future, as a Heritage value, environmental value and majorly for the purpose of domestic water use. The drying up of this will have significant ill-effects on the water supply system and the economics of drawing water with increasing demand of the water supply to the people of Hyderabad.

Also need of proper governance, for the proper governance involvement of people is necessary, giving importance to people participation, and thus effectiveness of the policies at both micro and macro level can be brought out, achieving the required objectives.

Interlink age of the stakeholders is crucial. STP's and the laying of connecting sewer lines are the backbone of the Musi revitalization and co-operation of the slum population is also important.

Lack of awareness of the population also lead to degradation of natural resources. The degradation of the resources is due to the malfunctioning, misuse neglect and faulty planning by various departments. In case of Musi the riverbeds have been encroached for long time and now it is difficult to comprehensive improvement methods without proper resettlement and rehabilitation strategies.

Ensuring underground sewerage system in the urbanized areas of Hyderabad. No untreated water should be let into water bodies, failing which the huge amount of penalties will ensure the safety of Musi to some extent.

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