Traditional methods of branding are dead...


The main aim of this dissertation is to find why traditional methods of branding are dead? And what are the new ways of branding, and how different companies can use these ways to make their business strong and powerful to compete with other brand.


As the title of this project suggest that there is a debate going on that branding is no more significant today, this statement is true to some extent, because if we do the survey of market then we will know that there are a lot of unbranded product selling in the market, and store product (like Tesco, Sainsbury, idle which are selling in their store, and consumers are happily buying them, because these products are satisfying their consumers needs and desires. But there are only a small percentage of people who think that it is no more relevant. Some people are brand loyal they use only branded product and some are not if there branded is not available in the market they go for substitute product. So it depends on customer to customer.

Today almost every organization whether its is a small company or a big multinational company has a trading name. Advertisers and marketers are using branding as a strategy for their business, but the most important thing about branding is what its meaning is? And how it can provide benefit to our business?

There are so many definitions of branding; it can be defined as a term sign symbol and mixture of all these parameters that is used for the identification of services and good of different sellers and to differentiate from competitors. (Hankinson Graham and Phillippa Cowking) says that ‘‘a brand is a service or product made distinctive by its positioning relative to the competition and by its personality''. (The Economist, 1988) Says that brand is something that customer knows and will react to. The main Purpose of branding is to make the brand image; then this image of brand will enhance the brand value and then leads towards brand loyalty (The Economist 1988).

Famous brands are those which people can easily recognize, even if they don't know about the company name or product. Branding of product can also stretch to symbols logo its style or feature that identify the organization its product or service,e.g colour lay out used for coca cola(red and white)people can easily recognize the brand through colour.

Example 1: Taking an example of Nike, this brand is famous in all over the world, anyone can easily identify the brand even if not bought any of its products, because the famous Nike symbol Tick is also a branding in its own right through this symbol people can easily identify Nike's product.

Example 2: Another example is of Adidas Company, they are using three strips on their product, and through this design feature branding people can easily identify adidas products even if the logo or brand name is not present on the product.

Successful and strong brands are those brands which are easily identify and have some relationship with the company and products, branding is about how customer perceived the good or service or organization, McDonald is one of the famous brand today most of the people identify that brand because they know at anytime they can get low-priced and quick food from them. Structuring a strong brand is a time consuming procedure, but overall its is the mixture of marketing strong advertisement and product consistency.

To make brand easily recognisable without the company name is the biggest achievement in branding world, This procedure is time consuming but it will also take a large sum of money.Serveral organizations have achieved this e.g. many vehicles manufacturers Like BMW,Audi,like McDonald's golden Arches, Nike with its (Swoosh) and many more.

In current era many companies are using branding as a strategic tool. Branding and brand concept are not original, but companies are applying them to different setting where branding is very much important (Wentz & Suchard 1993)

If we look in past thought of every person about branding was to do something interesting and different with the designing and name of product. But in today's business branding is everywhere and everything is branded. Branding is all about ideas that a person has in his mind about the company and product. This process is about managing perception and identity.

In today's era every person wants his business on a peak and to be a no one choice of customer. Branding is not about a product or service which you are providing to your customer it is all about what you are selling to your customer. To become a successful in branding you should fully know the wants and desires of customers. A strong and successful brand is precious for the company because it can make any business standout from the competitive market. If a company wants to be a successful in branding then they should spend more time in research and investigations for making and building their brand, because it is like a promise which you are making to your customers.



Historical reviews of branding shows that there are thousand of examples of different brand evolutions. The original meaning of Brand is something which is burning or warm. History shows that branding is basically associated with the procedure of stamping on animal with distinctive symbols, so that their owner can identify their animal easily (Riezebos 2003 and Hart and Murphy 1998). The owner of the cattle use hot branding iron that was used as symbol of fashion at that time, the hot branding iron would be pressed against the hide of an animal to make a permanent symbol on the body of the animal. In Roman and Greek time there were also so many examples of brands with high level of Illiteracy, at that time if a trader sold any product/good they hung the portrait or name of that product on the top of their shop indicating that this product/good is sold in the shop. And in the Middle Ages many shopkeepers using stamp to mark their trademarks and product, so that they can distinguish their product from different marketers and supplier. ‘‘Trade mark advertising'' The first aspect of branding has undergone many revolutions. Branding is used as legal type of defence against coping grew and a promise of the source of product. Now a days trade name consist of words (e.g. Adidas) Different packages shape (e.g. Pepsi bottles symbol (e.g. the distinctive McDonald logo which have been registered and a purchaser identify as being distinctive to a particular brand.

Many modern organizations have set the foundation of modern brand strategy. Fullerton and Low (1994).Development in Infrastructure, transport and road ensure that national division become easier. Manufacturer of the product are making their packaging unique so that consumer of the product can easily recognise their brand. Legal aspect, like identification of trade name has support in the building of brand. Today the time has changed law has extended to allow the trade name and copywriting of not the form, colours and brand name used in covering thus further protecting the distinction and added value inbuilt from a branded product. Today many consumers of different brands talk about brands, and many brands speak in a numerous of ways with consumers. In Films different products are used like branded clothings, so brands are the main element of western consumers' lifestyles.

In nineteenth century several main producer of the product had embark on advertising and branding and was using a sales force to decrease the power of whole seller. By the use of national marketing, advertising and branding companies can increase the reliability and quality and value of their brands making them more familiar through individual covering/packaging that no longer serves the Individual reason of safety. In ancient time advertising was used to promote the brand and product. Several maker exercise legally backed control over price many producers of the brands moved to marketing branded goods (Leslie de Chernatony and Malcolm H.B.McDonald).

In modern days branding has huge importance and meaning; it is all about to recognize company's goods from the related goods of competitor big business. Branding can also be used as to disguise a lower product as one of superior value. From the history of ancient China, we can get an idea that many, sellers used branding sometime to falsely pass off they get somewhere very inferior quality garden tea and sell as superior quality hill tea, by giving them a brand names like "Garden in the Sky Tea"or "Misty Mountain Tea".


There are different views of different people about branding, some people says that the traditional branding methods are no more useful today, and some people says that they are useful, but it doesn't mean that traditional branding methods are dead, the reality is they are alive. As this a modern world, everything is changing today, companies are using new marketing strategies to promote their product according to customer's preferences. So as everything is changing, branding campaign can no longer stand on their own in any successful companies market plan?

In past when there was no name of internet, most of the companies connects branding with images, which bring to mind sentiment and feelings linked with a product or brand. At that time different types of advertisement was appeared on TV, and mostly people just sit around TV and enjoyed the commercials. There were only few channels available at that time, Life of the people was very simple and easy, in past TV advertisements have few competing message than today.

In past companies choose different media for branding like TV advertisement, radio, print media like billboard, but now the modes are changing. In past companies advertisements were very different from the product they promoted through that advertisement, idea created for the product was also different. The Advertisers had power over what he can say and show in the commercial. In commercials Babies were shown crawling around in tire to remind images of protection, in much advertisement coke are associated with polar bear or celebrity.

If we talk about old media there is some distinction in branding experience and brand advertising, from watching the commercial on radio and television consumer cannot purchase from TV, but online they can purchase at the same time, if not they can actually give response, or consumer can share their purchasing experience with other consumers, or they can talk about different product attributes, and they can also interact with the seller at the same time. As the media is changing to online, now there are various platforms for companies to manage their brand so that they can make brand experience across all platforms.


Most of the customer said that branding is dead today” The Internet is eroding the opportunity to brand." "Because of the Internet, Positioning of the brand is no possible and there is no brand loyalty." Some people argues that branding is no more effective today, they said that most of the marketers do branding just to increase their sale, they spend more money on advertising to attract their customers, because every advertiser and company wants from their customers to think about them. It is all about creating a meaningful relationship between organization and customer. has made a strong relationship with customers, their delivery and service is all wonderful, but their cost of operation is effecting on their effectiveness and profitability. They have put all their efforts on customer experience and creating extreme value in the branded relationship with those customers, but they should understand one thing that all the customer relations they have is to build powerful brand. So if they are doing all of this right, is wrong to place so much emphasis on brand? Turning customers from supporters into advocates will help Amazon move from non-profit to for-profit at some point. By then--if they can sustain themselves financially in the near term-- the strength of the brand will be firmly lodged within the customer base.

Managing our use of the Internet to further deliver on our brand promises is the new focus. Allowing our presence on the Internet to enhance our company's value to the end user is the new mantra. Without this mantra, the Internet is yet another global database of who cares information about a company--yet another expensive technological toy, yet another ineffective media choice.


Most of the companies in past was using celebrity's endorsement for branding, this process is still continue today, but it is a debate whether this process is useful for the companies in building their brand, or it's just an idle tool to create their brand popular in consumer's mind. For this process companies are spending huge amount on their branding. It's important for the company to check right celebrity to support right brand, because values of celebrity should match with brand values.

Celebrity endorsement is basically a channel to communicate brand, and in this process celebrity behave as a representative and certify the brand's position through his personality and popularity. Today in marketplace there is extremely high production of global brands, so celebrity endorsement was thought to give a distinct differentiation.

Taking an example of Nike, it is one of the most powerful brand in market today, it also has create a very powerful brand personality and brand identity, and its success is entirely based on Tiger wood association with the brand, Nike was also used celebrity endorsement channel to promote its brand to a highly focus set of customers. So, its association with Tiger Woods was one of the elements of a whole branding process that it has been practicing constantly. There are many brands in Asia that have used this channel to build there brands, like pepsi, Lux etc.

Some time over popularity of celebrity can put negative impact on brand, because if that celebrity is involved in various endorsements, it will create confusion for the customer and leave negative affect.

Companies are using celebrity endorsement for many reasons, Studies shows that consumer positively value the use of celebrity endorser in the advertisement. Companies are spending huge amount on brand with endorser qualities like trustworthiness, attractiveness, but today due the new mode of branding these all investments are unviable.

Companies are using celebrities for branding to give brand recognition in market. A research shows that most of the audience age from 16 to 30 influenced by seeing the celebrities in the advertisement like mostly cricketers and film stars. Celebrity endorsement work really well for the branding, but it can not be sustainable in all the products and in all stages of life cycle. A global research firm Synovate says that 47% of the consumers like to purchase a brand which was endorsed by their favourite and be loved superstar.

It is slightly difficult for the organization to know the result of celebrity endorsement on the income and sale of the organization. So, if the celebrity is selected carefully it can enhance brand sale, because the personality of celebrity should compete with brand.

1.Positive impact on celebrity endorsement

When a brand is approved by the star it promotes sense of trust among consumers, because celebrities makes brand visible. A celebrity's liking for a brand provides influential message to consumer, because if the celebrity is getting advantage from the brand, the customer will also get advantage.

Dwane Hal Dean studied that the endorsement of celebrity affected only product individuality and value, one image variable (esteem). The third party endorsement hence may be perceived as a signal of product quality.

(Goldsmith et al) suggest that endorser credibility had its powerful impact on Aad while corporate credibility had its strongest impact on AB. The findings suggest that corporate credibility plays an important role in consumers' reactions to advertisements and brands, independent of the equally important role of endorser credibility.

2.Negative impact on celebrity endorsement

Some time celebrity endorsement can put negative impact on brand, because if that celebrity is involved in different endorsements, it will create negative impact on consumers purchasing. (Tripp et al) says that if a celebrity is involved in various products it affects on consumers intention and attitudes.

There are many brands in the market that build their position without celebrity endorsement e.g. in India brands like Procter & Gamble they don't trust on celebrity endorsements, because according to their thinking housewives in India likes to see on screen ordinary persons than superstar. There are many examples of their brands like Dettol, Life boy and toot paste adds like close up for all these advertisements they have used ordinary people.

It is very important for the companies to know that celebrity endorsement can not change the complete brand building process. For branding organizations should also used other communicating channels, when all the steps in the branding process is implemented. Then channels of celebrity endorsements can give the cutting edge as it did for brand like Nike.


There are some views about different people about branding Ken Murray; (CMO) said that branding's traditional methods are not dead but they are changed. It means that messaging needs to be clear and memorable, in order to be effective, because budgets are tight so marketing investments should be measured.

President of Big Fuel (Ian Baer) said that it is not sufficient for the brand to make se of messages and spend more money to convey those messages to customer's mind.

Ronald Pruett, chief marketing officer. Here's a more personal example: online classified job sites. People are using them in droves, putting their own personal brand out there for many to see because they are interested in a specific opportunity. The advertiser for the position is thus allowed to pull or "buy" individuals with their own unique experiences and,

This process is fast ;:in;.l efficienr


Branding is all about the process of making unique image and perception in consumer's mind. The brand is all about the set of service and product that is related with the product name (Baker, 1996) and identifies the service and product in the market (Cooke, 1996) It is all about distinctive business identity which is related with, quality, origin, liking and personality of product. One of the important and necessary attribute of brand is uniqueness, once a brand is created for consumers the organizations should ensure that it's all characteristics and attributes should match according to consumer's expectations, because if a consumer is not satisfied with the quality of brand, then he will react in negative way and may refuse to buy that brand (Cooke, 1996)

By taking an examples of few famous brands like McDonald, Coca cola, Pepsi, Master cards, when we think about these all brands some distinctive images clicks in our mind, when we think about coke red can with some lettering comes in our mind, Mcdonal with its golden Arches, Pepsi with red and blue half circles, Master cards come with its red and yellow circles and KFC with Colonel sander, these all images are a part of branding and associated with these brands from many years.

Famous brand like Mercedes-Benz has an image of a luxurious car which itself defines the standard of luxury. At the same time, it is also considered as the car meant for the creamy layer of the economic status. That is why no down-market Mercedes-Benz brand car could be seen in USA because it could have affected its image and consequently it's USP (Unique Selling Proposition).


Different organizations are focusing on branding today and they use branding as a tool to differentiate their goods and service from their rivals. (Baker, 1996; Dibbetal., 1997; Kotler, 1997) As Pearson (1996 p.6) explain…‘‘Strong brand is a combination of customers need (what they want from product) set of features (what product is all about) and values (what customers associates it with).When marketing process add some values to the product then a brand is created and make it different from competitors''.

When a person starts a business whether it is a small or large, the consumers create some ideas about company's products this is known as brand in ‘‘nutshell''. So if the company wants to get better its business, they should spread awareness about their brand to consumers.

Many organizations have lost view of significance of establishing brand loyalty, because of their poor quality product and poor customer service. So first it is important for companies to improve product quality and provide better service to their customers. When a customer is satisfied with the product quality and service then brand loyalty occurs.

When customers have some good experience with some brands, then they repurchase the same brand after some time, because people who closely relate with some brand identity they not only purchase that brand but also buy some related item of that brand, and also recommend those brand to others. Because such identity of brand create loyalty with that brand. Only brands can decrease the risk of consumer when they buy something which they don't know.(Montgomery and Werner felt, 1992).So it is very important for a company to make a strong brand image from the beginning to end.

If a product fulfill customers requirement and offer quality at the right price then brand loyalty occur.If a customer is completely committed to brand,then will be ready to pay a higher price for the product,if there are many brands exist at low price or superior quality, the brand loyal customer will never move to substitute brand.

if a brand keep its promise then he will recommend that brand to other as well. As (Tilley 1999 p. 191) says that business who keeps their promises keep their customers. In other sense leading brands are responsive enough to react to environmental dynamics. So brand loyalty is power asset for the company.

Loyalty comes from brand experience; it is a relationship of trust between brand and consumer. There are many brands in the market that cheated customers, even consumers are spending lots of money on it, customers are allowing themselves to seduce by the competition and taking their business on the top.

Car industry are full of these example, Taking an example of Luxury brand Mercedes, it losing its brand loyalty because of its decreasing value, quality and reliability of car.

Financial Times report ‘‘German drivers no longer hail Mercedes, the company reputation is marked because vehicle is no more reliable any more''.Mercedes was at the top of the car companies list. But now company losing its focus. But whatever the cause for the brand's decline, the problem visibly doesn't lie with variable consumers

On the other hand competitor product Lexus is on rising due to its amazing quality of service, which is the basic of building brand loyalty. German car consumers ranking the Japanese car at the top than Japanese themselves.

A company which look after its loyalist is BMW, and most of the customers reward the company with their trust, admittedly the new model of BMW is not like by the customer but still most of the consumer hanging to old model of BMW.

In these days many viral marketing methods are used for creating brand awareness and maintain brand loyalty, and for this companies are using advertising method to promote their products. When brand become establish in marketing then companies are focusing on maintaining a relationship with customers through different medium like e mail, Telephone,


Brand promise is a commitment that a company makes to its loyal customers. It is about the primary benefits of your product or service that you are providing to your customers. ‘‘Your brand promise represents the core essence of your brand''


ü The safest cars in the world

ü Frequent, low cost flights

ü Everyday low prices

ü Fun entertainment for the whole family

ü A unique coffee experience

ü Time-certain delivery

The above quoted examples are of those companies who are the top market leaders. These companies strictly focused their entire company on their brand promise. After doing business with any of these companies you would know what you will receive.


Brand attributes are the features of the brand like quality innovation that distinguish brand from other brands. These attributes help the company to deliver brand promise.


Branding is all about reaching your prospect to perceive that you are the only solution to their problem. If customer perceives that you are the only solution to their problem then there is no place for customer to shop, and then they will pay premium for your brand. A successful brand is the personality of the company it is all about what your customers think about you, and what your company stands for.


Taking an example of Southwest Airlines they better know their employees directly strengthen their brand personality. So they hire only those persons whose personalities are exactly match according to their requirements.

ü A commitment to customer service

ü Self-motivated and energetic personality

ü Team-oriented

ü Ability to work equally well alone or with others

ü Sense of humour

ü Positive attitude

Flexibility to work in a dynamic, fast-paced environment


A successful and a strong brand is an entity for an organization that makes some promises. Companies are using branding to create emotional attachment to product, it is important today because only successful branding creates awareness among people, they not only recognise your brand but also know the different qualities of brand that make it better than the competitive brands.

A brand image is a combination of visual, rational, cultural and emotional appeal (McDonald and Christopher (2003)) that relate with the organization and product or service

Positive relation with the brand increase satisfaction level and value that you get from the brand and if you recognise the brand you can select your brand easily.e.g if you think of Nike its mean Just do it, e.g if you think of McDonald it means im lovin it. In market there are so many substitute of Coca cola Product may be they are better in taste than cola but most of the people buying only coca cola, they enjoy the experience of drinking and purchasing cola. The loving and golden memories of youth and refreshment are more important for the people than a little bit improved coca cola taste. This is the emotional relationship of people with brands that make them so powerful.

A powerful brand is a picture of all the information associated with the organizations, product or service. A brand serves to create associations and expectations among products made by a producer. It contain an logo, campaign fonts, colour schemes, symbols and sound spokespersons that developed to represent implicit ideas, personality and even value. A brand is basically associated with experiences a company creates with employee's retailer, wholesallers and customers. The main purpose is to build a connection of trust.

A strong and powerful brand is the combination of all unique characteristics: like

ü Price of the product

ü Reputation of product and company

ü Promise

ü Attitude

ü Product line

ü And Logo

Every organization or business has a brand whether it's offering brand like soft drinks, chocolates, beer, accounting service, today now even cities and areas have a brand. Like Los Angeles, New York. There are few cities that have a powerful brand identity and individuality who have given products named after them to force this image such as L.A Fitness, South beach diet etc


Today organizations are spending millions on advertisement in promoting and building their brands, in these days customers are selecting those brands which they believe that they will serve them best even if the price of that brand is on top. Every business has a brand and that brand play very important role to its success, so it's very important for a company to check its brand image to ensure that it's fulfilling its consumers demand and perceived in the way as the company wants to be.

By taking an example of American express card due to their strong brand value and success customers are spending more for the ‘‘privilege'' to use the card. Because of the growth and continuous success American Express has created many brand extensions like Platinum Gold Blue and black cards.

Today companies are promoting values, image lifestyle or prestige through brands to attract customers. Using a particular brand customer can reinforce a positive image (Ginden 1993) because brand loyal customer do not accept substitute brand.

Mercedes, BMW and Audi are the high quality brands in the market today, they are offering good quality engineering as well as customer service, Toyota is not the direct competitor of all these brands but they have created a Luxury brand called Lexus, Both of the brands have the same quality, chassis and design elements. Lexus has received today a highest level of customer satisfaction, it is just because the level of customer service, so they have extend its brand through brand experience. . They have done branding in everything: like

1. How sales person first move towards you in the display area

2. Dresses of Sales person

3. Selection of building structure and Decoration (Including flooring, Tables and chairs)

4. Showroom design

5. Design of waiting areas

6. Hygiene/Cleanliness of service area

7. After the sale branding is continue

If we are offering some strong brands to consumer with differentiated qualities we should work hard on that to ensure that we offered some real value and great benefits.


Branding is all about how you make your product and offer different than your competitors.It is about how you make your product different amongst many identical products in the market.Effective branding can creates emotional resonance in the consumers mind, who choose products and services using both emotional and pragmatic judgements.Most of the business using different packaging to make their product different like Rachel's Organic Butter they choose black colour for their Packaging instead of using different colours like golden, pale or green,so due to that colour of packaging their brand look different ,distictive and even daring than all other business competitors.


Today everything is branded,cutomers are paying more prices for the branded product rather than unbranded products,Taking an example of Tesco market they start their business as a supermarket,but now they are selling many products from food to furniture and insurance,The continues success and low price give opportunity to Tesco business to enhance their business without any changes in its brand identity.Tesco add values in their business if customers don't like Tesco brand in one particular product area than they move towards business other product area.

Logos for Tesco Opticians; Wine Club; Travel and Leisure; Compare; Car Insurance and Flowers


For every business it is very important how they engage with customer by offering some attributes.By taking an example of Apple first they have launch computer now they have launce ipod,they have move their business to film and music. Apple has redefine what the company has does and shift its brand association to something that connect with large number of people outside coputing or creative community.


Almost everything is branded today from a small product to a large product.It is not a innovative thought. As the world is more globalize, method and strategies of branding which different companies are using today is continually changing, because with the passage of time customer's value taste and preference will also change.

Some researchers say that brand is more in value than a name given to the product; it includes set of idea, beliefs and socio-psychological characteristic. It make around company's repute, its services and value, All of these characteristics impact upon customer's perceptions of the brand.And perception of brand directly affect on customers buying decisions(Doyle,1994).A powerful brands are very important assets for the organizations.And few researchers says that brand play important role in construction of customers identity.(Elliot and Wattanasuwan, 1998).

If Company's are doing branding perfectly, then the benefits outweigh the problems (Lorenzini and McCarthy, 1992).A brand can shows both positive or negative emotions of customers.It is important for organizations to think carefully while making a brand(Shocker et al., 1994).because many powerful and strong brands are the result of many years of investment planning (Hankinson and Hankinson, 1999).

Companies can deal better with fluctuating environment if they adopt different branding activities and strategies.Organization should creates some unique features in their offering in order to increase competitivness.Branding is a strong and powerful process used by different companies to enhance and increase their company's image in the market. The purpose of branding is to focus on all the elements of marketing mix and to build product image (Clearly 1981) this image of product will enhance the brand value to the customer leading to brand loyalty (The Economist 1988) also providing facilities to companies in maintaining and getting a loyal customers and achieving highest profit on investments.

Today companies are promoting values, image lifestyle or prestige through brands to attract customers. Using a particular brand customer can reinforce a positive image (Ginden 1993) because brand loyal customer do not accept substitute brand. For example if I am a brand loyal of Sony laptop I will never purchase any other laptops available in the market even the attribute of that brand is more than Sony. Branding is not the solution of all problems, but if it is successful then it will provide employees a satisfaction and confidence in their product (O'Malley 1991).Rubinstein (1996) argues that branding goes beyond communication and regarded as integrated business process. when companies are branding product there is a series of tangible attributes like packaging physical form ,labelling these all features are concerned and a part of branding.

Value of branding at corporate level can not be ignored because there is a high level of intangibility, complexity responsibility which makes it difficult. In service companies branding play an important role because only powerful and strong product can increase customers trust, and powerful brand can only help customers to understand and visualize intangible product. Branding for tangible product is different from branding for service because it is the company which is the primary brand (Berry and Parasuraman, 1991) For example different organization like HSBC bank, McDonald, British airways have created different image but their identity is based around the organizations. Keller (1996) says that a strong brand is valuable for the company and its positioning is important tool for the brand to convey its meaning.

Selling and explaining the brand to employees are called brand internalising. It is all about sharing the information and research strategy to employees. It is about giving training to employees in brand strengthening behaviour. It is about rewards the employees who support the brand; most important it is about involving employees in the care and promotion of the brand. The corporate identity is totally connected with the corporate brand concept. The concept of identity focused on characteristics, which differentiate one product or person from one another (Moingeon Ramanantsoa, 1997; Markwick and Fill, 1997).Suggest that every business has its own individuality, characteristics, personality and uniqueness.

Taking an example of McDonald which is famous for its quick fast food delivery they focus on their three values, purity, Consistency and happiness, to become no one in fast food industry. (Melnet, 1995).For every business powerful and strong identity is important to transfer external or internal image among stakeholders (Gray and Balmer, 1998; Simoes and Ries, 2000, Hatch and Schultz, 1997) Transferring in to a priceless asset. (Anson, 2000)

Tilley (1999) says that there are three fundamentals of brand management approach, response to change, personification of meaning, and persuasive communication. And he is having the same statement as of Chernatony (1999) saying that real sense of brand is set in all the achievement of organization. In (1985) Poter has given a value chain model, in which sales and marketing are located at the end. But Tilley (1999) argues on this statement and said that if a company wants to build value, then brand should be evident on each stage of chain model from unprocessed substance to finishing product. Tilley (1999) says that strong powerful and leadership brands are those brands, which fulfil their promises with their customers, those brands called leadership brands because, only those brands can respond to forceful environment.


This is all about about strong position of branding in marketing activities,it is confirmed today that customers are buying brand today but not the product,because brands are related to consumers live,competition is more just because of the attributes of the brand,these attributes are the reason of customers purchasing that is why they

LEGO (Creative imagination) case study

This case of LEGO shows the success of the company by offering physical brand attribut,and company's commitment to customers fostering creative imagination.LEGO is one of the world famous brand.The product range that LEGO offers are very much expensive,But the design of their creative imagination are the same,Because this is one of the cornstone of its Branding.If we brows LEGO website,then we will know how this website expalin to research new adeas,this philosophy allow LEGO to live up to its positioning statement.Creative imagination…Just imagine.''

LEGO name was originated from the word LEG GOLDT which is a Danish word,the history of LEGO brand is more than 60 years old.After 1950 company started manufacturing LEGO bricks,After that LEGO's business was internationaly success,Lego was also voted as ‘'Toy of the century''the success of this LEGO brand is all because of their continus workhard,and devotion.After this success LEGO has divide its business in four different categories,like Lifestyle product,media,play material and family,but they have applied their brand in all the categories,the main part of LEGO business is play material,and the target age for this brand is from zero to sixteen,Lego has started its nine different product programmes:LEGO PRIMO and LEGO DUPLO programm are for five years old child,and LEGO BASIC and ZNAP programms are for 4 to 9 years old children,LEGO TECHNICS and LEGO MINDSTORM are for old customers of LEGO.In its category of family attraction LEGO has developed many gardens and parks in USA,UK and Denmark.Lego third category Lifstyle includes ,ganmes bedlinen ,children wearing,and the last category Media includes ,books videos,softwares,and music.So LEGO's overall commitment to the brand is not finish up to the sale to consumer,Now company is also doinf a creative thing like they have made an amazing website and also doing online shop,where consumer can buy everything from their home accessories to theme park ticket.

From the analysis of this LEGO's case study we can get an idea that today branding is very much important and beneficial as well,because only brands can give the consumer knolwdeg to choose and identify the product which can best fulfill his or her physical and psycological needs.when companies are building a strong brand,and use proper strategies to promote that brand,then brand increase its position in the market,and gain a customer loyalty.

GOLDEN ARCHES (McDonald's)Case study

McDonald's is one of the gaint international fast food resturant,People love to eat in McDonald's because of their quality food,service and good value.Now McDonald's is one of the famous brand of the world,it has spend its large investment on advertisment to make this brand world;s best brand.Many customers have seen McDonald's advertisments which promoting Mcdonald's brand on television,billboards.And most of the customers have experience McDonald's by vising to their local resturants to enjoy different meals.They have done many efforts to establish their brands in consumers mind.Company has also enjoyed many international expansions like franchising,just because the power of this brand.McDonald's strong and successful franchising record in the whole world would not be possible without the brand .Main development of this brand is made possible because of communication with external public.So brand should be consider from both internal or external perspective.(Chernatony, 1999).In branding total consistencying is needed in every step from unprocessed product to finish product.

Employees of any organizations are important players in communicateing the brand message,because they are the main part of brand reality (Macrae, 1996).So this is all about how company helps the business to develop a goods and service delivery.But in some cases brands are a source of competitive advantage,so to achieve this mission,branding should be more than marketing activity.

We can see from these two mini case studies that principle of corporate identity and branding can be applicable in any type of business. From the three case it is cleared that corporate branding can help company's ground branding activities,and if a plateform is strong than company can built whole branding process.Powerful identity is the heart of internal and external communication.So from these mini case we get an idea that there is a strong connection between market success and corporate identity (Schmidt, 1997).


Internet has changed everything today, with the increasing internet access online branding play a vital role. As the physical communication with the consumer is reduced today and product qualities and features are communicated over wires, online branding is very much important today, because through online branding customer can easily choose their known brands, because these brands have set of values and attributes on which consumer trust. Online branding is a well-built and powerful system that facilitates you to do branding and advertising efforts to reach to you potential customers says (Louis Fazo). From the past few years many companies whether it is a small or large doing business on the internet, because through online branding, business receive identification and recognition. For example company blogs, news, articles these all can be successful and useful opportunity that any organization can use to enhance their online business. Many customers are relying on internet for their shopping, and they are using internet as a source to investigate different goods and services. Many business are using internet branding to launch there product E.g. Apple, iPod.Internet is more than a broadcast medium like television .It is like a service medium in which many people can interact with each other at the same time and can exchange their information. Before decade ago when internet was not evolved scope of online branding was very limited but now every organization is using online branding to promote their brands. Today online branding has been a big business. Effective online branding is all about giving customers information that who you are, what you do and how you do it? A lot of people are spending their more time on web, that's why it is important for every business to use internet to make impact. Branding is not only about giving name and logos it is about the whole ‘‘sense ‘‘associated with the organization.

In these days online business are very successful, Online branding is very much same to offline branding, because in offline branding mostly billboards are used for advertisement, but in online branding the size of medium is decrease to monitor for advertisement but the way of conveying message to consumer is same. Company's website can be made more beautiful to potential partners and advertisers through a familiar brand. Branding your business doesn't take costly global advertising; it can be done through direct marketing, or through a strong website. Online branding provide extension to offline taking an examples of companies like Bricks and mortor Fed Ex their online brands reinforce the pre- existing ideas about the company, but other brands like yahoo and Amazon only exist online. They should carefully check their brands and should know that there is restriction due to limitation of web.

Logo and company name is one of the major identity for any organization, that's the main thing that make any organization memorable, like Google and yahoo they have very different logo people can easily recognize without seeing them.

And Domain is the 2nd important thing for branding. Sometime it is difficult for the company to find domain name which is easy to remember, it is not necessarily for the company to relate domine to what you are selling. These are successful names and brands, but it's a stretch to say they have anything to do with the companies' offerings.


Taking an other example of big supermarket Tesco,Its CRM system is one of the best system in the world, They measure valuable customer through purchase and expenditure value.Tesco started a club card in 1995 and offering point to loyal consumers on purchased items, this card proving information about the customer purchase what product they are buying and which areas they are spending more time in store ,Tesco also selling online and delivering products to customers door.

In these days value of online branding is on the top, that's why we can fined online branding in every book of e marketing and e business, in this era importance of brand is on the peak, because brand can reduce the cost and time (Wards and Lee, 2000), because it is the world of electronic and people prefer shopping on internet, so that they can reduce their physical interaction and time as well. Through online branding consumers can get many benefits like, like they can interact with many consumers and seller at the same time, and share their experience and information about the product.


Branding is all about uniqueness and individuality and brand should not be the same; otherwise the whole idea of branding is lost. It needs some special thing that makes it different and unique from the competitor's product, because customers can only remember those brands that have individuality.


Branding should be easy and simple, the reason behind simple branding is to link and engaged our self with simple things and ignore complex ideas, if we think about most popular brands logos what comes in our mind? Must be shell, golden arches and may be red can, these all are simple concept and these brands have used simple branding. As the world is more globalize today and new business are evolving making simple logos is an easy task, but the logo which you make for your brand may look like other companies brand. So it is important for every organization to do proper research before doing branding.


Internet has burst many international obstacles, web has made very easy way for companies to reach their customers in all over the world. Organizations can easily communicate with their customers through internet, and customers can easily take information about their products. It also creates cultural challenges. So it is very important for a company to choose a website logo carefully, because symbol which company is choosing doesn't insult other culture, if it is one of its target markets.

Some people think that branding is about image, branding lost it ways, because mostly people relate branding to a narrow focus on creating marketing message. Many advertising are used as strategy of telling lies. Take an example of a car TV advertisement we mostly watch on TV that there is a vast and empty street and a huge area of land where sparkling water splash marvellously as the wheels of these attractive dream machines zoom through. But the reality is we spend most of the time in traffic jam, so it is not wrong to think about fantasy but the problem is, because of this fantasy thinking, many people think that the real meaning of brand lies in its colour and logos, and through images and music they can be in touch with their consumers. Online branding is not about image it is more about functions. Internet is very practical place, so if companies wants to be successful they should focus more on their websites, it should be fast and convenient.
It is a new modern era with the change in technology people taste and preferences are also changing, it means people are less innocent. For example me and my husband both having Samsung mobile, because both of us like the features of that mobile but it doesn't mean that we are brand loyal of Samsung, may be after some month we change our phone, but if we look at few years back, most of the people were very brand loyal they were only stick to their specific brand if the substitute brand was available in the market. Web has changed people thinking today it is a brilliant platform for a company to convey the real value of their brand, for example Major search engine Google is a very famous and global brand not because of its logo and different colour website, it is why because people can search quickly and easily, they can easily get information about anything they want. Web mostly helps the brand to do some different and useful things, because the attributes which consumers demand from the web brand is quality assurance, value, usefulness and convenience.


Social networking is basically all about grouping of different people, it is more common in individuals in universities and workplaces, and as this is new world so for the conversation mostly websites are used and all these websites are called social networking websites. Through this social networking website many members share their information about different products. And today social networking is used as a positive way for conversation about a brand, and it spread information about brand more effectively.

Through social networking branding has reached to a new height, and this is one of the inexpensive platforms than the traditional marketing media. Through these website most of the companies can talk to their clients and their customers can talk to their companies and even other customers at the same time, and exchange their information about different products. This media also has an ability to forward customers to these websites without old advertising methods (Wetzel) says that social networking is a persuasive multi-colour path that propose many organizations the chance to tell their story in a more understandable way.

Today there are lots of social networking sites on internet from Twitter to Facebook.when a person is using face book and leaving comments on someone's face book post, so the person should know that if the post is off coloured or inflammatory, it means that person is leaving wrong impression on someone's mind. Same is the case with small business owner. If the owner of the business is doing the same thing that wrong impression will carried to his brand and he will lost his potential customer. Because mostly people forget that these social networking sites for not only for entertainment purpose, they also have a strong impact on our brand and reputation of the company.

If you are doing any small business no matter whether its relate to product or service, e.g if you are selling blue spectacles what you will do on the internet because in this case you are the brand of your business, because anything you will say on internet will directly effect on your brand, because it is all about how your potential customers perceive you.

One study shows that most of the customers up to 66% purchase brand after hearing them on social networking sites like twitter or face book, they said that the major reason of purchasing brand from those sites are discounts, on the product, most of the face book user support the company whose brand they are buying through social networking, Twitter users follow a brand to receive real time information and offers.

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