The staff of engineering & science department


Throughout this project we have been given support and help from the staff of engineering & Science department. Especially our great thanks to esteemed lecturers, Mr. Peter Griffin and Mr. Eddie Dempsey who gave us their precious time to help us throughout our project. We also like to thank everyone in the department who helped us to accomplish this project. We are also grateful to Mr. Peter Griffin for arranging the factory visits as a part of course and which helped us to get an idea about industrial environment and preparation of this report. We also like to thank the staff members of the TEREX, THALES and BAE SYSTEMS, who have given us their valuable time from their busy schedules to take us for the tour around the factories and sharing the valuable information with us.


The purpose of the group project was to investigate how TPM principles are adopted in various manufacturing industries and the benefits of implementing TPM. Through this we have examined all productive maintenance methodologies within the TPM which are eight pillars named as follow:


  • PILLAR 1 - JISHU HOZEN ( Autonomous maintenance )
  • PILLAR 3 - KAIZEN (Focused Improvement)

This was the part of our secondary research. After completing our secondary research we visited industries to discover how they use these maintenance tools. This was the main part of our primary research. Through this project we have found different methodologies and their origins and conclusions.


The project was initiated in order to ascertain whether industries were incorporating the quality tools and being used as originally written or bring being adapted to fit their business structure. The project investigates how TPM principles are adopted in various manufacturing industries and the tangible & intangible benefits achieved by them from successful TPM implementation. Throughout the project there has been thorough research within the TPM management areas and its tools.

The project started with secondary research, and it is about the philosophies and TPM tools that are used within the industries worldwide. Once the secondary research material was collected about the philosophies and TPM tools then we started to write about these tools and history of them and how these tools are used in the industries and how they benefits the industries once they have been implemented.

After the secondary research was done in the project then group went on the factory visits organised by lecturers to see how the TQM and TPM tools are used in the industries and how they benefit them. The visits are been to TEREX, THALES, BAE SYSTEMS. During each visit the group was given brief presentation about the history of the company and problems that arose while they were trying to implement the TPM approach after the presentation we have been taken for a tour around the factory.

On behalf of these three factories visits group had produced a report on each visit which was prepared after the discussion what the group had observed during visit in each factory and what the factory had gained from introducing the TQM and TPM approach and their quality control tools.

Project Objectives:

  • To understand the objectives and principles of TPM
  • To do research on efforts of companies for implementation of TPM
  • To evaluate the effectiveness, advantages and disadvantages of TPM principles
  • To prepare a project report on TPM


Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) is an equipment management program that emphasises operator involvement and ownership of equipment performance. The goals of a TPM program are to maximise equipment productivity, maximise equipment availability and make quality product by eliminating causes of equipment defects, losses and wastes through expanding and engaging the knowledge, skills and abilities of the front-line people running the process.TPM is not a short- lived, problem-solving, maintenance cost reduction program. It is a process that changes corporate culture and permanently improves and maintains the overall effectiveness of the equipment through active involvement of operators and all other members of the organisation. TPM requires sponsorship and commitment from top management in order to be effective.

TPM helps to markedly increase production while, at the same time, increasing employee morale and job satisfaction. TPM brings maintenance into focus as a necessary and vitally important part of the business. It is no longer regarded as a non-profit activity. Down time for maintenance is scheduled as a part of the manufacturing day and, in some cases, as an integral part of the manufacturing process. The goal is to hold emergency and unscheduled maintenance to a minimum.

The required TPM investment as return is very high. Over time, the cooperative effort creates job enrichment and pride, which dramatically increases productivity and quality, optimizes equipment life cycle cost and broadens the base of every employees knowledge and skill. TPM cannot be applied to unreliable equipment; therefore the company must initially bear the additional expenses of restoring the equipment to its proper condition and educating personnel about the equipment. Team activities are base to TPM. Teams at top management, middle management and shop floor levels carry-out TPM activities. Each type of team has its own objectives and part to play.

Safety is a cornerstone of TPM. The basic principle behind TPM safety activities is to address dangerous conditions and behaviour before they cause accidents. Workplace organization and discipline, regular inspections and servicing & standardisation of work procedures are the three basic principles of safety. All are essential elements in creating a safe workplace.


TPM is a Japanese idea that can be traced back to 1951 when preventive maintenance was introduced into Japan from the USA. Nippondenso, part of Toyota, was the first company in Japan to introduce plant wide preventive maintenance in 1960. In preventive maintenance operators produced goods using machines and the maintenance group was dedicated to the work of maintaining those machines. However with the high level of automation of Nippondenso maintenance became a problem as so many more maintenance personnel were now required. So the management decided that the routine maintenance of equipment would now be carried out by the operators themselves (this is autonomous maintenance, one of the features of TPM). The maintenance group then focussed only on 'maintenance' works for upgrades. The maintenance group performed equipment modification that would improve its reliability. These modifications were then made or incorporated into new equipment. The work of the maintenance group is then to make changes that lead to maintenance prevention. Thus preventive maintenance along with maintenance prevention and maintainability improvement were grouped as productive maintenance. The aim of productive maintenance was to maximize plant and equipment effectiveness to achieve the optimum life cycle cost of production equipment.

Nippondenso already had quality circles which involved the employees in changes. Therefore, now, all employees took part in implementing Productive maintenance. Based on these developments Nippondenso was awarded the distinguished plant prize for developing and implementing TPM, by the Japanese Institute of Plant Engineers (JIPE). Thus Nippondenso of the Toyota group became the first company to obtain the TPM certifications.

5. Types of Maintenance

5.1 Breakdown Maintenance

It means that people waits until equipment fails and repair it. Such a thing could be used when the equipment failure does not significantly affect the operation or production or generate any significant loss other than repair cost.

5.2 Preventive Maintenance (1951)

It is a daily maintenance (cleaning, inspection, oiling and re-tightening), design to retain the healthy condition of equipment and prevent failure through the prevention of deterioration, periodic inspection or equipment condition diagnosis, to measure deterioration. It is further divided into periodic maintenance and predictive maintenance. Just like human life is extended by preventive medicine, the equipment service life can be prolonged by doing preventive maintenance.

a. Periodic Maintenance (Time Based Maintenance - TBM)

Time based maintenance consists of periodically inspecting, servicing and cleaning equipment and replacing parts to prevent sudden failure and process problems.

b. Predictive Maintenance

This is a method in which the service life of important part is predicted based on inspection or diagnosis, in order to use the parts to the limit of their service life. Compared to periodic maintenance, predictive maintenance is condition based maintenance. It manages trend values, by measuring and analyzing data about deterioration and employs a surveillance system, designed to monitor conditions through an on-line system.

5.3 Corrective Maintenance (1957)

It improves equipment and its components so that preventive maintenance can be carried out reliably. Equipment with design weakness must be redesigned to improve reliability or improving maintainability

5.4 Maintenance Prevention (1960)

It indicates the design of new equipment. Weakness of current machines are sufficiently studied (on site information leading to failure prevention, easier maintenance and prevents of defects, safety and ease of manufacturing) and are incorporated before commissioning a new equipment.

6.0 Why TPM?

TPM was introduced to achieve the following objectives. The important ones are listed below.

  1. Avoid wastage in a quickly changing economic environment.
  2. Producing goods without reducing product quality.
  3. Reduce cost.
  4. Produce a low batch quantity at the earliest possible time.
  5. Goods send to the customers must be non defective.
  6. Manufacturing processes are becoming more synchronized as we drive WIP out of our Lean Production Processes.
  7. Processes in the total production system are now dependent upon each other.
  8. Equipment available time or up-time is critical as inventory levels and production lead times continue to be reduced.
  9. Maintenance related expenses can account for over 30% of total manufacturing costs, representing a significant cost reduction opportunity.
  10. New technology & equipment requires significant investment and therefore the related return on investment must be maximized.
  11. JIT requires all equipment to produce the correct product in the correct quantities when required. Reliability and Flexibility are paramount.
  12. Life Cycle Costs need to be reduced to maintain competitiveness in the market.
  13. TPM allows for the more effective use of human resources, supports personal growth and Manufacturing flexibility objectives
  14. Lean Manufacturing requires 100% machine availability producing perfect quality products at lower operating costs.
  15. Quality, Cost, and Delivery increasingly depend on equipment conditions.
  16. If your equipment wont run, not much else matters.

7. TPM Principles

1. Maintenance Engineering

  • Managing equipment life cycle
  • Strategic asset planning
  • Design & Construction
  • Operations
  • Maintenance
  • Disposal

2. Total Quality Management:

TQM is adopted by Japanese to improve global image and acceptance of their products. TQM is a set of management practices throughout the organization, geared to ensure the organization consistently meets or exceeds customer requirements. TQM places strong focus on process measurement and controls as means of continuous improvement. The ultimate goal of TQM is zero defects. Management style in TQM culture is participative, trusting, and focused on fixing problems and defects, not on apportioning blame. Information is widely shared & the people let the data lead them.

3. Just In Time (JIT):

Just in time is a pull system of production, so actual orders provide a signal for when a product should be manufactured. Demand-pull enables a firm to produce only what is required, in the correct quantity and at the correct time. This means that stock levels of raw materials, components, work in progress and finished goods can be kept to a minimum. This requires a carefully planned scheduling and flow of resources through the production process. Modern manufacturing firms use sophisticated production scheduling software to plan production for each period of time, which includes ordering the correct stock. Information is exchanged with suppliers and customers through EDI (Electronic Data Interchange) to help ensure that every detail is correct.

JITs goal is the elimination of all waste such as, time, space, labor, materials and inventory. The core concept of JIT is the reduction of cycle time.

8.0 Pre-TPM conditions checklist

9.0 Similarities and differences between TQM and TPM

The TPM program closely resembles the popular Total Quality Management (TQM) program. Many of the tools such as employee empowerment, benchmarking, documentation, etc. used in TQM are used to implement and optimize TPM. Following are the similarities between the two.

  1. Total commitment to the program by upper level management is required in both programmes
  2. Employees must be empowered to initiate corrective action, and
  3. A long range outlook must be accepted as TPM may take a year or more to implement and is an on-going process. Changes in employee mind-set toward their job responsibilities must take place as well.

10.0 TPM Goals & Objectives

  1. Achieve Zero Defects, Zero Breakdown and Zero accidents in all functional areas of the organization.
  2. Involve people in all levels of organization.
  3. Form different teams to reduce defects and Self Maintenance.
  4. To get the most efficient use of all production equipment (i.e. overall equipment effectiveness).
  5. To establish a total (company wide) PM system, encompassing Predictive Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance and Improvement related Maintenance)
  6. To achieve full participation of equipment designers and engineers, equipment operators, and maintenance department personnel.
  7. To effectively involve every employee in the Company from the shop floor associate to all aspects of upper management.
  8. To promote and implement PM related autonomous, small-group
  9. Activities targeted at continuous improvement of operating efficiency.
  10. What is PQCDSM in TPM concept?

    Each company will have to define for themselves, looking at all losses, which affect plant performance:

    These are some examples:

    P Production output lost due to want of material

    Manpower productivity

    Production output lost due to want of tools

    Q Mistakes in preparation of cheques, bills, invoices, payroll

    Customer returns/warranty attributable to BOPs

    Rejection/rework in BOPs/job work

    Office area rework

    C Buying cost/unit produced

    Cost of logistics inbound/outbound

    Cost of carrying inventory

    Cost of communication

    Demurrage costs

    DEPB benefits on time

    D Logistics losses(Delay in loading/unloading)

    Delay in delivery due to any of the support functions

    Delay in payments to suppliers

    Delay in information

    S Safety in material handling/stores/logistics

    Safety of soft and hard data

    M Number of kaizens in office areas.

    TPM Targets


    Obtain Minimum 80% OPE.

    Obtain Minimum 90% OEE (Overall Equipment Effectiveness)

    Run the machines even during lunch. (Lunch is for operators and not for machines)

    Q: Operate in a manner, so that there are no customer complaints.

    C: Reduce the manufacturing cost by 30%.

    D: Achieve 100% success in delivering the goods as required by the customer.

    S: Maintain an accident free environment.

    M: Increase the suggestions by 3 times. Develop Multi-skilled and flexible worker

    Motives of TPM

    1. Adoption of life cycle approach for improving the overall performance of production equipment.
    2. Improving productivity by highly motivated workers which is achieved by job enlargement.
    3. The use of voluntary small group activities for identifying the cause of failure, possible plant and equipment modifications.

    Uniqueness of TPM

    The major difference between TPM and other concepts is that the operators are also made to involve in the maintenance process. The concept of "I ( Production operators ) Operate, You ( Maintenance department ) fix" is not followed.

    Direct benefits of TPM

    1. Increase productivity and OPE ( Overall Plant Efficiency ) by 1.5 or 2 times.
    2. Rectify customer complaints.
    3. Reduce the manufacturing cost by 30%.
    4. Satisfy the customer's needs by 100 % ( Delivering the right quantity at the right time, in the required quality. )
    5. Reduce accidents.
    6. Follow pollution control measures.

    Indirect benefits of TPM

    1. Higher confidence level among the employees.
    2. Keep the work place clean, neat and attractive.
    3. Favourable change in the attitude of the operators.
    4. Achieve goals by working as team.
    5. Horizontal deployment of a new concept in all areas of the organization.
    6. Share knowledge and experience.
    7. The workers get a feeling of owning the machine.

    11.0 Stages in Introduction of TPM in an Organization

    11.1 STAGE A - Preparatory Stage

    STEP 1 - Announcement by Management to All about TPM Introduction in the Organization

    Proper understanding, commitment and active involvement of the top management in needed for this step. Senior management should have awareness programmes, after which announcement is made to all. Publish it in the house magazine and put it in the notice board. Send a letter to all concerned individuals if required.

    STEP 2 - Initial Education and Propaganda for TPM

    Training is to be done based on the need. Some need intensive training and some just an awareness. Take people who matters to places where TPM already successfully implemented.

    STEP 3 - Setting Up TPM and Departmental Committees

    TPM includes improvement, autonomous maintenance, quality maintenance etc., as part of it. When committees are set up it should take care of all those needs.

    STEP 4 - Establishing the TPM Working System and Target

    Now each area is benchmarked and fix up a target for achievement.

    STEP 5 - A Master Plan for Institutionalizing

    Next step is implementation leading to institutionalizing wherein TPM becomes an organizational culture. Achieving PM award is the proof of reaching a satisfactory level.

    11.2 STAGE B - Introduction Stage

    This is a ceremony and we should invite all. Suppliers as they should know that we want quality supply from them. Related companies and affiliated companies who can be our customers, sisters concerns etc. Some may learn from us and some can help us and customers will get the communication from us that we care for quality output.

    11.3 STAGE C - Implementation

    In this stage eight activities are carried which are called eight pillars in the development of TPM activity.

    Of these four activities are for establishing the system for production efficiency, one for initial control system of new products and equipment, one for improving the efficiency of administration and are for control of safety, sanitation as working environment.

    11.4 STAGE D - Institutionalising Stage

    By all their activities one would has reached maturity stage. Now is the time for applying for PM award. Also think of challenging level to which you can take this movement.

    Sort (1S)

    Sorting means to sort through everything in each work area. Keep only what is necessary. Materials, tools, equipment and supplies that are not frequently used should be moved to a separate, common storage area. Items that are not used should be discarded. Do not keep things around just because they might be used someday. Sorting is the first step in making a work area tidy. It makes it easier to find the things you need and frees up additional space. As a result of the sorting process you will eliminate (or repair) broken equipment and tools. Obsolete fixtures, moulds, jigs, scrap material, waste and other unused items and materials are disposed of. The objective of this step is to clean up the work area. Cleaning up not only makes things look nice, it makes it easier to spot maintenance needs such as an oil leak. It improves safety. It eliminates clutter and confusion. It removes tools, equipment, supplies and waste that interferes with getting the job done.

    Set In Order (2S)

    Step two is to organize, arrange and identify everything in a work area for the most efficient and effective retrieval and return to its proper place. Commonly used tools should be readily available. Storage areas, cabinets and shelves should be properly labelled. Clean and paint floors to make it easier to spot dirt, waste materials and dropped parts and tools. Outline areas on the floor to identify work areas, movement lanes, storage areas, finished product areas, etc. Put shadows on tool boards, making it easy to quickly see where each tool belongs. In an office, provide bookshelves for frequently used manuals, books and catalogs. Labels the shelves and books so that they are easy to identify and return to their proper place. The objective in this step is: A place for everything and everything in its place, with everything properly identified and labelled.

    Sweep (3S)

    Once you have everything from each individual work area up to your entire facility, sorted (cleaned up) and organized, you need to keep it that way. This requires regular cleaning, or to go along with our third S, "shining" things up. Regular, usually daily cleaning is needed or everything will return to the way it was. This could also be thought of as inspecting. While cleaning it's easy to also inspect the machines, tools, equipment and supplies you work with. Regular cleaning and inspection makes it easy to spot lubricant leaks, equipment misalignment, breakage, missing tools and low levels of supplies. Problems can be identified and fixed when they are small. If these minor problems are not addressed while small, they could lead to equipment failure, unplanned outages or long - unproductive - waits while new supplies are delivered. When done on a regular, frequent basis, cleaning and inspecting generally will not take a lot of time, and in the long run will most likely save time.

    Standardize (4S)

    To ensure that the first three steps in your Five S program continue to be effective, the fourth step is to simplify and standardize. The good practices developed in steps 1 through 3 should be standardized and made easy to accomplish. Develop a work structure that will support the new practices and make them into habits. As you learn more, update and modify the standards to make the process simpler and easier. One of the hardest steps is avoiding old work habits. It's easy to slip back into what you've been doing for years. That's what everyone is familiar with. It feels comfortable. Use standards to help people work into new habits that are a part of your Five S program. Any easy way to make people aware of, and remind them about the standards is to use labels, signs, posters and banners.

    Sustain (5S)

    The final step is to continue training and maintaining the standards. Have a formal system for monitoring the results of your Five S program. Don't expect that you can clean up, get things organized and labelled, and ask people to clean and inspect their areas every day and then have everything continue to happen without any follow-up. Continue to educate people about maintaining standards. When there are changes such as new equipment, new products, new work rules that will affect your Five S program, and adjustments to accommodate those changes, make any needed changes in the standards and provide training that addresses those changes. Using 5s Posters and Signs: A good way to continue educating employees, and for maintain standards, is to use 5s posters and signs. You can create your own custom 5S posters allowing you to communicate the specific information that needs to be communicated at each location. Changing work habits can be difficult and it is easy to slip back into doing things the old comfortable way. Use custom 5S posters to remind employees of the proper procedures, and of the benefits that come from following a 5s plan.

    12.2 PILLAR 1 - JISHU HOZEN (Autonomous Maintenance)

    Autonomous Maintenance (AM) is a team-based approach to maintenance activities and part of a Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) process. The process is a partnership between operators, maintenance technicians, engineers and leaders in the operation and maintenance of the equipment. The goal of autonomous maintenance is to prepare operators to do some basic daily equipment care independently of the maintenance staff. This Maintenance Miracle Kaizen Event is not an awareness course, but a hands-on training in a proven methodology for the successful implementation of an autonomous maintenance effort. Learn the steps necessary to involve operators in maintaining their own equipment through daily inspections, lubrications, detection of abnormalities, and precision checks. The result is restoration of equipment to its ideal state, establishment of basic conditions for maintaining it, and prevention of equipment deterioration. Properly implemented, AM eliminates the causes of 40-60% of unplanned downtime, freeing skilled trades for more specialized activities, like major overhauls, upgrades, predictive programs and new equipment planning and design.


    The AM Process we are implementing consists of four steps. Step zero, one, two and three. The process can be Summarized with the following Mantra:

    Step Zero

    This is where the teams learn how the tool operates, learn the safety aspects of tool, create a risk assessment for working on the tool, become certified on the safety aspects and operation of the tool and decide which loss related metrics they will track. Safety is a major focus for this step and the reason for this is simple.

    The process we are learning is an Autonomous Maintenance process. By the end of the process, operators will be capable of maintaining the tool at a level that maintains a basic level of condition. This means they will be working in areas of the tool that are not only new to them but may expose them to certain safety hazards. Understanding and minimizing those hazards in the form of a risk assessment is essential. As the team completes their risk assessment, the relevant equipment engineer must sanction the assessment. An audit at the end of step zero is designed to prevent progress to the next step unless everyone on the team is safety certified and the risk assessment has been approved. The team will also demonstrate how to safely power up and power down the tool.

    Step One

    At this stage the team will divide the tool into different sub-assemblies and begin cleaning. The key part of this is not to clean for the sake of cleaning, but clean to INSPECT. As the team begins to clean they will identify defects. These defects need to be documented with details of what has been found and the exact location. Colour dots will be added to a large poster of the tool to help understand groupings of defects. The defects are also divided into two very different categories, Yellow and Red. A Yellow defect is a defect that can be corrected by the team members, while a Red defect is a defect that can only be corrected by someone outside the team. This cleaning process can take some weeks and may result in anything from two to five hundred defects being identified. Before moving on to Step Two, the team will have to pass the Step One audit. The Office of TPM conducts the Step One audit and the audit itself describes in great detail what is required to pass the audit. For Step One the audit will not only look at the defects found and corrected but also the condition of the tool. The tool should begin to look better than it did when the process began. When a team passes their Step One audit, a celebration lunch or dinner at a local Japanese restaurant recognizes their achievement.

    Step Two

    During this step the clean to inspect will continue, but in a more formalized way. A Cleaning and Inspection map should be put in place that details what parts of the tool are cleaned or inspected at defined frequency. At this time, some defects will have determined to be recurring. During Step Two, these recurring defects need to be analyzed in order to determine the root cause. Why-Why Analysis and Fishbone diagram tools are used to determine root cause. Once root cause is established, a countermeasure needs to be implemented to prevent the recurrence. The effectiveness of the countermeasure is determined by the recurrence of the defect. The countermeasures are then added to the routine Cleaning and Inspection process. Progress to Step Three can only be achieved when the Step Two audit has successfully been completed. As with the Step One audit, the office of TPM conducts the Step Two audit. With this audit, the emphasis switches to how effectively the team has prevented the appearance of recurring defects. By this time, the tool should look pristine or back to original condition. This usually includes repainting the tool. Depending on the condition of the tool to begin with, the performance may also have increased through less downtime. On another level the team has begun to set a zero tolerance level for defects. Driven by the hard work expended on the tool which zero tolerance level is passed on to non-team members who also operate the tool. This peer pressure is extremely powerful to maintain the tool in current, pristine condition.

    Step Three

    Although this step is the shortest to complete, it is in many ways the most crucial. During this step, the team makes some final adjustments again to the Clean to Inspection Map. They then have to take the Cleaning and Inspection process in place at this point and roll it out to everyone who works on the tool. A simple awareness and training session is insufficient. The reason for this is that it is crucial that whatever is put in place so far becomes embedded as the team disbands at the end of Step 3. This is the toughest part of all, and ANADIGICS implementation of Step Three has evolved considerably through both the pilot and subsequent teams. The evolution of this step is still not over. Gaps remain as ownership is transferred back to the original owner as the AM team disbands. Planned improvements to this step include routine audits conducted by the Office of TPM and the area manager. Throughout all of the steps, the progress of the team is tracked on an Activity Board located close to the tool. The Activity Board will show all of the defect data, tracked metrics, Cleaning and Inspection Maps and Before and After photographs showing the condition of the tool before the process began, and also at the completion. Every Activity Board for every tool is laid out in exactly the same way. This is done not only to drive consistency, but also to allow teams to learn from each other.

    Step Four

    Conduct training on inspection skills in accordance with inspection manuals find and correct minor defects through general inspections, modify equipment to facilitate inspection. Visually inspect major parts of the equipment; restore deterioration; enhance reliability Facilitate inspection through innovative methods, such as serial number plates, colour instruction labels, thermo tape gauges and indicators see through covers etc. Learn equipment mechanisms, functions, and inspection criteria through inspection training, master inspection skills Learn to perform simple repairs Leaders enhance leadership skill through teaching group members learn through participation Sort out and study general inspection data; Understand the importance of analyzed data.

    12.3 Pillar 2 - Planned Maintenance

    It is aimed to have trouble free machines and equipments producing defect free products for total customer satisfaction. This breaks maintenance down into 4 "families" or groups which were defined earlier.

    1. Preventive Maintenance
    2. Breakdown Maintenance
    3. Corrective Maintenance
    4. Maintenance Prevention

    Preventive Maintenance (1951)

    It is a daily maintenance (cleaning, inspection, oiling and re-tightening), design to retain the healthy condition of equipment and prevent failure through the prevention of deterioration, periodic inspection or equipment condition diagnosis, to measure deterioration. It is further divided into periodic maintenance and predictive maintenance. Just like human life is extended by preventive medicine, the equipment service life can be prolonged by doing preventive maintenance.

    a. Periodic Maintenance (Time Based Maintenance - TBM)

    Time based maintenance consists of periodically inspecting, servicing and cleaning equipment and replacing parts to prevent sudden failure and process problems.

    b. Predictive Maintenance

    This is a method in which the service life of important part is predicted based on inspection or diagnosis, in order to use the parts to the limit of their service life. Compared to periodic maintenance, predictive maintenance is condition based maintenance. It manages trend values, by measuring and analyzing data about deterioration and employs a surveillance system, designed to monitor conditions through an on-line system.

    Breakdown Maintenance

    It means that people waits until equipment fails and repair it. Such a thing could be used when the equipment failure does not significantly affect the operation or production or generate any significant loss other than repair cost.

    Corrective Maintenance (1957)

    It improves equipment and its components so that preventive maintenance can be carried out reliably. Equipment with design weakness must be redesigned to improve reliability or improving maintainability

    Maintenance Prevention (1960):

    It indicates the design of new equipment. Weakness of current machines are sufficiently studied (on site information leading to failure prevention, easier maintenance and prevents of defects, safety and ease of manufacturing) and are incorporated before commissioning a new equipment.

    With Planned Maintenance we evolve our efforts from a reactive to a proactive method and use trained maintenance staff to help train the operators to better maintain their equipment.


    • Achieve and sustain availability of machines
    • Optimum maintenance cost.
    • Reduces spares inventory.
    • Improve reliability and maintainability of machines.


    • Zero equipment failure and break down.
    • Improve reliability and maintainability by 50 %
    • Reduce maintenance cost by 20 %
    • Ensure availability of spares all the time.

    Six steps in Planned Maintenance

    • Equipment evaluation and recoding present status.
    • Restore deterioration and improve weakness.
    • Building up information management system.
    • Prepare time based information system, select equipment, parts and members and map out plan.
    • Prepare predictive maintenance system by introducing equipment diagnostic techniques and
    • Evaluation of planned maintenance.

    12.4 PILLAR 3 - KAIZEN

    "Kai" means change, and "Zen" means good ( for the better ). Basically kaizen is for small improvements, but carried out on a continual basis and involve all people in the organization. Kaizen is opposite to big spectacular innovations. Kaizen requires no or little investment. The principle behind is that "a very large number of small improvements are more effective in an organizational environment than a few improvements of large value. This pillar is aimed at reducing losses in the workplace that affect our efficiencies. By using a detailed and thorough procedure we eliminate losses in a systematic method using various Kaizen tools. These activities are not limited to production areas and can be implemented in administrative areas as well.

    Kaizen Policy

    1. Practice concepts of zero losses in every sphere of activity.
    2. relentless pursuit to achieve cost reduction targets in all resources
    3. Relentless pursuit to improve over all plant equipment effectiveness.
    4. Extensive use of PM analysis as a tool for eliminating losses.
    5. Focus of easy handling of operators.

    Kaizen Target

    Achieve and sustain zero loses with respect to minor stops, measurement and adjustments, defects and unavoidable downtimes. It also aims to achieve 30% manufacturing cost reduction.

    Tools used in Kaizen

    1. PM analysis
    2. Why - Why analysis
    3. Summary of losses
    4. Kaizen register
    5. Kaizen summary sheet.

    The objective of TPM is maximization of equipment effectiveness. TPM aims at maximization of machine utilization and not merely machine availability maximization. As one of the pillars of TPM activities, Kaizen pursues efficient equipment, operator and material and energy utilization, that is extremes of productivity and aims at achieving substantial effects. Kaizen activities try to thoroughly eliminate 16 major losses.

    16 Major Losses

    A) 7 Major losses which obstruct OEE

    • Equipment failure loss
    • Setup loss
    • Cutting blade change loss
    • Startup loss
    • Minor stoppage and idling loss
    • Speed loss
    • Defects and rework loss
    • Shutdown loss
    • Management loss
    • Operating motion loss
    • Line organization loss
    • Logistic loss
    • Measurement and adjustment loss
    • Yield loss
    • Energy loss
    • Die and tool loss

    B) Loss which affects the equipment loading time

    C) 5 Major losses preventing efficiency of manpower

    D) 3 Major losses preventing efficiency of material and energy

    1) Equipment failure loss

    Loss due to breakdown of equipment.

    2) Setup loss

    Time taken to change setting from one model / product to other till first OK piece comes out.

    3) Cutting blade change loss

    Time taken to change worn out tools till first OK piece comes out.

    4) Startup loss

    Time required to build temperature / pressure etc. Referencing of CNC machines, warm operations conducted early morning or after long stoppage.

    5) Minor stoppage and idling loss

    Unlike failures, minor stoppage / idling losses represent a status in which the machine is subjected to either stoppage or idling due to temporary troubles; for instance, when a work piece is clogged in the chute, idling occurs; or when a sensor is activated because of a quality defect to cause a temporary stoppage. These are the conditions in which the machine will revert to normal operation, if the stuck work piece is removed, or resetting is carried out.

    6) Speed loss

    Losses due to difference between the actual speed and design speed. Losses resulting from lower design speed compared to the present technological level or desirable speed (or mission speed). Ex. If standard cycle time is 30 sec and actual operation time is 35 sec; the speed loss is 5 sec.

    7) Defects and rework loss

    Loss due to defective (Rework + Rejection) production. Volume losses due to defects and time losses required to repair defective products to turn them into excellent products.

    8) Shutdown loss

    Loss which affects the equipment loading time. Time losses when equipment is stopped for planned maintenance. This loss is caused by stopping the equipment for periodical maintenance / inspection, and for scheduled shutdown for legal inspection during the production stage. Reduction of shutdown time and cycle extension must be sought.

    9) Management loss

    These are waiting losses such as awaiting instructions, awaiting material, awaiting tools, repair which are generated through management problems.

    10) Operating motion loss

    Losses due to violation of motion economy. It is the man-hour loss which is generated by the skill level difference in the setup and adjustment, tool and jig change operation and so forth. The losses which are caused by skill level difference in the loading and unloading work is also included in this category. Walking losses because of bad layout. Method / procedure loss, Skill and morale loss.

    11) Line organization loss

    Loss due to organizing the manning considering skill, availability etc. It is the loss resulting from the worker having to work on more than one piece of equipment at the same time, including loss caused by improper line organization. Include waiting time losses generated in the multi-process and multi-machine processing and also line balance losses in conveyor work.

    12) Logistic loss

    Stoppage of equipment for logistics reasons. Ex.- Material movement, non-availability of trolley / bin etc. Man-hours spent in doing logistics work (transportation of products or raw materials etc.) by other than logistics workers, or the additional time spent by logistics workers due to equipment failure.

    13) Measurement and adjustment loss

    Losses that result from measuring and adjustment to prevent occurrence of quality defects.

    14) Yield loss

    Weight difference between raw material and products

    15) Energy loss

    Losses of energy such as electric power, fuel, air, water etc. Startup loss, overload loss, temperature loss. It is the input energy which cannot be effectively used for processing. Losses such as startup loss, temperature loss during processing and idling are included in this category.

    16) Die and tool loss

    These are monetary losses resulting from the manufacturing and repair of dies, jigs, fixtures, and tools necessary for production. These are extra expenses needed for replacing dies, tools, and jigs which are worn over long service or broken or the expenses spent for re-grinding or re-nit riding.

    Overall Equipment Efficiency (OEE)

    Overall Equipment Efficiency (OEE) is the combined measurement of equipments availability, performance and quality rate.

    i.e., OEE = Availability x Performance rate x Quality rate

    7 Major losses which obstruct OEE

    • Equipment failure loss
    • Setup loss
    • Cutting blade change loss
    • Startup loss
    • Minor stoppage and idling loss
    • Speed loss
    • Defects and rework loss


    Machine availability is the actual time left for production after you subtract all planned downtime.

    Planned downtime occurs in the form of:

    • Breaks
    • Meetings
    • TPM activities
    • Material shortages
    • Full Kanban

    What affects the machine availability?

    Unplanned downtime affects the machine availability in the form of:

    • Breakdowns
    • Machine idle time
    • Setup and adjustment time
    • Minor stoppages

    Performance Rate

    Performance rate is the comparison between the ideal cycle time and actual cycle time of the machine. This is calculated by counting the parts produced while the machine was running vs. how many parts it should have produced in that time.

    What affects performance rate?

    Long cycle time than ideal cycle times which is Caused by:

    • Poorly operating machinery
    • Machines that have been slow down
    • Poor or inefficient work process
    • Material variation

    Quality Rate

    Quality rate is explained as how many parts vs. defective parts had produced during the time machine was running. For example if 100 parts are produced and 5 parts are defective we have a quality rate of 95%.

    What effects quality rate?

    Defective parts produced because of:

    • Improperly maintained equipment
    • Inconsistent materials
    • Operator error
    • Misaligned fixtures/incorrect setting
    • Too much guesswork


    It is aimed towards customer delight through highest quality through defect free manufacturing. Focus is on eliminating non-conformances in a systematic manner, much like Focused Improvement. We gain understanding of what parts of the equipment affect product quality and begin to eliminate current quality concerns, then move to potential quality concerns. Transition is from reactive to proactive (Quality Control to Quality Assurance).

    QM activities is to set equipment conditions that preclude quality defects, based on the basic concept of maintaining perfect equipment to maintain perfect quality of products. The condition are checked and measure in time series to very that measure values are within standard values to prevent defects. The transition of measured values is watched to predict possibilities of defects occurring and to take counter measures before hand.


    1. Defect free conditions and control of equipments.
    2. QM activities to support quality assurance.
    3. Focus of prevention of defects at source
    4. Focus on poka-yoke. ( fool proof system )
    5. In-line detection and segregation of defects.
    6. Effective implementation of operator quality assurance.


    1. Achieve and sustain customer complaints at zero
    2. Reduce in-process defects by 50 %
    3. Reduce cost of quality by 50 %.

    Data requirements

    Quality defects are classified as customer end defects and in house defects. For customer-end data, we have to get data on

    1. Customer end line rejection
    2. Field complaints.

    In-house, data include data related to products and data related to process

    Data related to product

    1. Product wise defects
    2. Severity of the defect and its contribution - major/minor
    3. Location of the defect with reference to the layout
    4. Magnitude and frequency of its occurrence at each stage of measurement
    5. Occurrence trend in beginning and the end of each production/process/changes. (Like pattern change, ladle/furnace lining etc.)
    6. Occurrence trend with respect to restoration of breakdown/modifications/periodical replacement of quality components.

    Data related to processes

    1. The operating condition for individual sub-process related to men, method, material and machine.
    2. The standard settings/conditions of the sub-process
    3. The actual record of the settings/conditions during the defect occurrence.

    12.6 Pillar 5 - Early Equipment Maintenance:

    Once the first four pillars of TPM have been established, it is usual to find that significant improvements have been made to existing plant to make them more effective, more reliable and easier to maintain. The knowledge which has been developed to achieve these improvements is now directed toward the development, design and implementation of new plant items before they arrive in the factory. It is akin to a process of Simultaneous Engineering, but involves mining the deep, practical, knowledge and understanding of what makes for good production developed during the earlier pillars, rather than purely theoretical engineering knowledge. In this way, new plant and equipment should be capable of vertical startup, where they achieve their planned performance level immediately, rather than after a period of commissioning and bedding in. The aim of this pillar is to move towards zero maintenance through "maintenance prevention" (MP). MP involves considering failure causes and the maintainability of equipment during its design stage, its manufacture, its installation, and its commissioning. As part of the overall process, TPM attempts to track all potential maintenance problems back to their root cause so that they can be eliminated at the earliest point in the overall design, manufacture and deployment process. In this phase organisation use the learnings and successes from their activity, in the design of new equipment and products. The goals is to create perfect equipment and products by working out safety issues and inefficiencies before the process begins, allowing for quicker ramp-up, or what we call vertical start-up

    12.7 Pillar 6 - Training & Education

    It is aimed to have multi-skilled revitalized employees whose morale is high and who has eager to come to work and perform all required functions effectively and independently. Education is given to operators to upgrade their skill. It is not sufficient know only "Know-How" by they should also learn "Know-why". By experience they gain, "Know-How" to overcome a problem what to be done. This they do without knowing the root cause of the problem and why they are doing so. Hence it become necessary to train them on knowing "Know-why". The employees should be trained to achieve the four phases of skill. The goal is to create a factory full of experts. The different phases of skills are:

    Phase 1: Do not know.

    Phase 2: Know the theory but cannot do.

    Phase 3: Can do but cannot teach

    Phase 4: Can do and also teach.


    1. Focus on improvement of knowledge, skills and techniques.
    2. Creating a training environment for self learning based on felt needs.
    3. Training curriculum / tools /assessment etc conductive to employee revitalization
    4. Training to remove employee fatigue and make work enjoyable.


    1. Achieve and sustain downtime due to want men at zero on critical machines.
    2. Achieve and sustain zero losses due to lack of knowledge / skills / techniques
    3. Aim for 100 % participation in suggestion scheme.

    Steps in Educating and training activities

    1. Setting policies and priorities and checking present status of education and training.
    2. Establish of training system for operation and maintenance skill up gradation.
    3. Training the employees for upgrading the operation and maintenance skills.
    4. Preparation of training calendar.
    5. Kick-off of the system for training.
    6. Evaluation of activities and study of future approach.



    1. Zero accident,
    2. Zero health damage
    3. Zero fires.

    In this area focus is on to create a safe workplace and a surrounding area that is not damaged by our process or procedures. This pillar will play an active role in each of the other pillars on a regular basis. A committee is constituted for this pillar which comprises representative of officers as well as workers. The committee is headed by Senior vice President (Technical). Utmost importance to Safety is given in the plant. Manager (Safety) is looking after functions related to safety. To create awareness among employees various competitions like safety slogans, Quiz, Drama, Posters, etc. related to safety can be organized at regular intervals.

    12.9 Pillar 8 - Office TPM

    Why Office TPM:

    To improve productivity and efficiency in the administrative functions, identify and eliminate losses, and reduce cost. This includes analyzing processes and procedures. Some of the areas for improvements that needs to be considered by the supporting departments are:

    • Understanding the needs of the manufacturing shops, integrating the activities and synchronizing with them.
    • Creating quality time through reducing time for searching by implementing 1S-2S.
    • Orient towards inventory reduction, cost reduction activity and better management system / procedures at the office area.
    • Break the inter-department barriers.

    Approaches to TPM activities in office TPM

    Accomplish tangible results

    • The organization cannot say it has implemented TPM unless tangible results are accomplished.

    Tackle with the concept of building a clerical plant

    • Information produced must be high in quality, correct and accurate, and useful to the people who use it.
    • The timing is also important.
    • To assure these qualities, its production process must be visible and easy to diagnose.

    Apply equipment approach to Office TPM

    • Substitute paperwork for equipment
    • Jishu-Hozen
    • Step-by-step implementation
    • Kobetsu-Kaizen

    Draw up what the sector must be and start aiming at accomplishing it

    • Set the Vision and Mission of the sector
    • Vision: What the sector must be
    • Mission: What should be done and to what extent to approach and accomplish the Vision

    Implement on a 3-pillar basis:

    • Kobetsu-Kaizen of work
    • a) Select work which likely to yield large KAIZEN effects from work performed in conjunction with other depts..

      b) Implement Kobetsu-Kaizen for loss elimination by forming a project team comprising staff and managers of the concerned depts.

    • Jishu-Hozen activities of office work
    • a) Jishu-Hozen of clerical work is indispensable to process work smoothly and efficiently

      b) This task must be tackled in 2 aspects

      i. Office function

      • Improving office work quality,
      • enhancing effectiveness and
      • building an economical office culture

      ii. Office environment

      • Creating an enrolment to enhance and maintain office efficiency
      • Eliminating stress caused by equipment and environment
      • Removing psychological and physiological stresses
    • Education and Training
    • Companies will not be able to exist or grow if the approach is to learn work by copying and supplementing it by experience.

      a) Establish a training system by job and position

      b) Set standards for acquiring necessary knowledge and skill

      c) create training curricula and provide training

    How to start Office TPM:

    Following are the steps involved -

    1. Providing awareness about Office TPM to all support depts.
    2. Helping them to identify PQCDSM in each function in relation to plant performance
    3. Identifying scope for improvement in each function
    4. Collect relevant data
    5. Help them to solve problems in their circles
    6. Make up an activity board where progress is monitored - Results and action along with kaizen
    7. Form TPM circles to cover all employees in all functions


    TPM objectives focus on maintaining equipment reliability and effectiveness. So by fine tuning TPM in order to optimize the maintenance effectiveness, the Reliability Centred maintenance was evolved within the civil aviation industry to fulfill this precise need.

    RCM can be defined as, a process used to determine the maintenance requirements of physical assets in their present operating context.

    RCM is a continuous process used to determine the most effective approach to maintenance in support of TPM. It identifies the optimum mix of applicable and effective maintenance tasks need to realize the inherent design reliability and safety of systems, equipment and personnel at minimal cost (a goal of TPM). The original development RCM concept is generally attributed to maintenance policy events in the airlines industry in the late 1960s and early 1970s.In an effort to maximize the safety of airplane passengers and maximize the reliability of aircraft and aircraft equipment, a task group was formed to investigate maintenance practices and to challenge the traditional concepts of successive overhauls.

    The traditional approach to Preventive maintenance was to overhaul or replace components just before they wore out and caused an equipment failure. The trick was to accurately determine where this wear out point was in the life cycle of a equipment. From the studies performed it indicates that all components do not follow a operate reliably then wear out failure probability. They tend to follow a variety of failure probabilities, as illustrated in the below figure.

    Integrating RCM and TPM:

    Fine tuning TPM through integration with elements of reliability centered maintenance does entail doing some things a little differently in organizations maintenance operation. The differences are what characterize the maintenance operation as Lean.

    The first two actions towards integration will require:

    • Assessing Equipment Criticality
    • Establishing Maintenance Task Priority Codes

    14.0 Key Performance Indicators

    Items (KPI) are what we measure to see how our company is performing. It looks at areas of the company that are important to our business objectives and measures them. Its sets our goals and sees how far we are on course to achieving them. It can also identify areas where we need to improve and areas where we have improved and should be trying out the techniques used to achieve this elsewhere. This explains what some of our KPI should be and how to find them.

    Absenteeism - Can indicate if there are underlying causes of high absenteeism within a team and may require some input to correct it. Figures to be used in calculations can be found in timesheets.

    Machine Downtime - This can show if we have problematic machines and may identify machines coming to the end of their life. It can also help to identify where our improvements need to be focused. Times for this can be found using Machine downtime (%) = Total hours machine is offline

    Quality Level - This shows how good our products are. Quantifying quality can be difficult and a lot of quality depends on customer satisfaction. This may be done by customer satisfaction surveys or number of returning customers. It can also be a measure of our rework levels, items passing inspection or even scrap levels.

    Raw Material Scrap - Shows where we are wasting materials and where we should look to improve by not having to scrap costly materials. Can be found by looking at the amount of extra materials we have to order above the amount required for jobs. These can be found in our Sage accounting software.

    Product Rework - Again useful in identifying if we have problematic areas causing high rework. Can be used as a basis for improvement and can show a level of quality. Can be found by number of rejections at inspection for rework or by number of returns for rework. If the TPM techniques are employed a change in this can be used to highlight how much of a quality improvement they are giving.

    Work Cost Over Budget - This shows where we are losing money and can throw the big question of WHY. This is very important to a competitive company and may mean we are undercharging or have to get improvements from our cost to manufacture products. Can be found from the Pegasus software of job cost estimates and actual job costs based on our overheads and material costs.

    A number above 100% indicates we have gone over budget, i.e. 105% indicates we are 5% over budget.

    Manpower Utilisation - Shows whether manpower is being used effectively so that people are not having long periods without work. Can we be using spare time for other tasks or employing them more efficiently. Figures can be gained from work studies.

    Machine Utilisation - Shows how well we are using equipment, i.e. is equipment sitting idle for long periods which is a waste. Figures can be gained from running times on machines and jobs times.

    Factory Efficiency - This shows how well overall the factory is performing and is a measure of our quality, utilisation and performance levels. These can be found from some of the other calculations.

    Process Capability - Shows whether a process is consistently producing products within specifications showing how the process is performing and highlighting need for improvement. The specifications are taken from the upper and lower limits of the equipment specifications.

    Floor Utilisation - This can show if our floor layout is effectively used or are we wasting space. Should really be carried out manually by measuring equipment size and total floor area.

    Deliveries on Time - This is a measure of customer satisfaction. Late deliveries can result in loss of orders so we should be aiming as high as possible with this. By looking at our delivery sheets and the times of these we can calculate this.

    Return on Investment - Another important indicator of how competitive a company is. Are we spending our money wisely? Could it be spent better? Why aren't we getting better returns? This can help as a wake up call if the company needs turned around and what we should be doing about it. Figures for this come from Sage accounting software regarding the expenditure on investments, and the money we are getting back from savings and benefits due to investments.

    The following report is an Industry Based Project carried out a Thales Optronics Glasgow. Thales Optronics are a large Multi-National Company with 68000 Employees spread over 50 Countries. Thales Optronics Glasgow formally known as Barr and Stroud started in 1888. They currently employ 550 people with an annual turnover of 120M. Product Range covers Land, Sea, Air and recently Space with the acquisition of Alcatel.

    Thales Optronics Glasgow

    Thales uses the LEAN SIGMA (Continuous Improvement) approach for their management system. All the world class companies across the globe have adopted lean sigma improvement approach. This improvement program is based on customised training which is designed to support improvement opportunities across every part of the business that is from operations to offices and from engineering to manufacturing.

    Further this approach is divided into eight parts:

    1. Kaizen Instruction Sheet
    2. DMAIC Problem Solving
    3. 5 Whys
    4. Standard Operating Procedures (SOP)
    5. Waste Analysis & Elimination
    6. Process Sequence Charts
    7. 5S Workplace Organisation
    8. Visual Management

    United Kingdom

    Terex Corporationis a diversified global manufacturer of a broad range ofheavy equipmentfor a variety of industries, including construction, infrastructure, quarrying, recycling, surface mining, shipping, transportation, refining, utility and maintenance. The company's major business segments include aerial work platforms, construction, cranes, materials processing & mining, and road building and utility products. Terex has more than 15,900 employees and operates 50 manufacturing facilities in North America, South America, Europe, Asia and Australia. Terex sells its products in more than 170 countries.

    Terex Corporation is using kaizen tool approach for their management system. It includes:

    1. 5S
    2. Kanban (kanban cards etc.)
    3. Kaizen register
    4. Kaizen summary sheet.
    5. KPIs


    BAE Systems plcis a Britishdefence,securityandaerospacecompany headquartered inFarnborough,Hampshire, England, that has global interests, particularly inNorth Americathrough its subsidiaryBAE Systems Inc. BAE is the world's largest defence contractor as of 2008. It was formed on 30 November 1999 by the7.7billion merger of two British companies,Marconi Electronic Systems(MES), the defence electronics and naval shipbuilding subsidiary of theGeneral Electric Company plc(GEC), and aircraft, munitions and naval systems manufacturerBritish Aerospace(BAE).

    BAE systems are not using any kind of TPM or TQM approach.

    during the visits to these companies we have told about different quality management techniques used by them in which most of the techniques are taught as a part of our course at UWS. We could learn the practical application of some of these tools from the visits. From the point of view of TPM approach none of these companies were using TPM methodologies.

    15.0 Conclusion:

    Today, with competition in industry at all time high, TPM may be the only thing that stands between success and total failure for some companies. It has been proven to be a program that works. It can be adapted to work not only in industrial plants, but in construction, building maintenance, transportation, and in a variety of other situations. Employees must be educated and convinced that TPM is not just another program of the month and that management is totally committed to the program and the extended time frame necessary for full implementation. If everyone involved in a TPM program does his or her part, an unusually high rate of return compared to resources invested may be expected.


    1. Ricky Smith and Bruce Hawkins, 2004. Lean maintenance Reduce costs, Improve Quality, and increases Market Share. Page numbers 55 - 104


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