Journal of food control


Nevin Sanlier observed that consumption of contaminated food thus food-borne diseases causes suffering to millions of people every year, consequently, such sufferings are among the most pronounced public health hazards issues faced in modern world. Many citizens of 3rd world countries are food poisoned through taking foods that lack the apt hygiene because of ignorance, circumstance or carelessness. The 1st world countries' citizens are not an exemption to food poisoning; their food is poisoned through unhygienic storage, careless preparation of food and cheap foods consumption.

The author observed that food-borne diseases average to 76 million cases every year in US. Turkey had 84,340 cases in 1999 and 77,515 cases in 2000. Many countries have associations that deal with food poisoning as the cases are rampant. Food poisoning is majorly a result of consumption of badly stored food, unhygienic food and wrongly cooked food. Sanlier noted that knowledge on safety measures on food increases as one advance in age. Turkey has neither education provision no legal requirements for food safety handling. The author's observations are drawn from a study on knowledge of food safety conducted in Ankara Turkey among young and adults.

Materials and Method

Sanlier observed that the study was done in 2006 for nine months on "food knowledge and practices." It also evaluated young consumers and adult's food behaviors in Ankara. 815 and 646 young consumers (ages 14-19) and adult consumers (minimum 20 years) respectively were sampled.

The author noted that two instruments were employed: questionnaires and interviews (face to face), with each having 21 questions to be answered. 150 people had participated in pilot testing of the questions and some minor adjustments done to suite the research. The questions were in three categories; demographic, knowledge on food safety and practices on food safety. The questions grading were rated ranging from very negative (never, almost never) through partially positive (sometimes, often) to very positive (always). Sanlier observed that estimation of reliability was done via use of "Croncbach alpha coefficient of internal consistency" (p. 539). The data collection was done by sixteen interviewers (post graduates) each distributing 94 questionnaires. Necessary explanation of questionnaires was done as well as the objective of the study.

Data analysis was done by SPSS software version 11.0, SPSS Inc., Chicago, III, USA. The mean were calculated and presented in table format. Scores evaluations were done through values of mean standard deviation. Evaluation of food handling practice questions were done through the use of t-test and Pearson chi square.


The author of the article identified that the filled questionnaires forms totaled to 1,461 with 56.2% female adults and 43.8% male adults. 46.6% female young consumers and 56.2% male young consumers. Sample domination among young consumers ranged between 14 and 19 while adult consumers ranged between 20 and 60 years old.

Sanlier identified that most young consumer's tastes milk to check its safety as opposed to adults who checks for date. Most consumers posited that foods in tins with bloated lids are not the best. Great percentage of young consumers stated that safe cooking of chicken requires internal higher temperature. Pasteurized milk is storable in refrigerator according to most adult consumers. Most adults were right on the precise temperature for bacteria growth and on question of cleaning of cutting board. Adults were found to be more knowledgeable on the fact that raw meat, chicken and fish should not have contact and that cold water do not fully clean hands.

The author noted that many consumers wash their hands prior to food handling at home but the percentage is lower for canteen eating. More washing of hands is seen before handling of meat. Most of young consumers use chlorinated material to wipe surfaces before food preparation. Almost half of young adults store remained food to refrigerator within 2 hours, with almost half testing food to evaluate its usability. Just above average of young consumers eat meat after well cooking while very few of them take raw eggs.

The author identified that food safety knowledge averages to 5.81 1.43 and adults 8.01 1.86. Safe food preparation averaged to 28.85 7.06 among young consumers and 30.47 6.14 among adult consumers. Adult consumers scored higher than young consumers in safe food handling.


Despite the increase in cases of food related diseases, the author has observed that people continue to engage in unbecoming food handling activities that exposes them to even more dangers. Above 50% of food borne outbreaks results from bad handling of food at homes, especially in handling of raw meat and lack of sufficient hygiene.

Sanlier noted that Turkey have had just some few studies on food safety knowledge with the very young and very old standing the highest risk on ailments on food borne. Young adult men have the highest rate of food mishandling together with individuals who are beyond high school. Women had a higher rate in hygiene observation as well as university graduates. More educated people are more concerned with hygiene. Young people have the greatest need for food handling education. Many consumers have little knowledge on food handling, and food safety measures. Consumers are also lacking information on how to buy prepare and store food.

The author identified that one of the greatest contributors of food borne diseases is ignorance on the risk involved in bad handling of food; consequently most people do not apply proper measures in food preparation, and storage. If essential knowledge pertaining handling of food is provided to consumers, the health hazards can be overcome.

The author has noted the essence of developing state policies on food safety education in Turkey, for the current ignorance continues to amplify the risks, but with necessary knowledge, consumers may employ the necessary safety measures. The education is also needed by all food stakeholders. Misguided habits among consumers can be overcome through appropriate illumination. The education should include: How food causes diseases, hygiene (personal and food), and food handling and preparation behaviors.

In conclusion Sanlier stated that food education ought to be delivered repeatedly to all age groups so as to deal wit the current attitude and inculcate appropriate behavior. It's imperative for the education to start from childhood, employing both formal and informal techniques to enlighten the masses.

Limitation of the Study

The author has posited that the results can not be generalized to the entire youth body since the study covered just a small percentage of the youth; only in Central Ankara. There is a probability of biasness in the study approach taken; people are likely to give inappropriate information about their personal behaviors.

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