World History Test Chapter 14-16
1. The Albigensians were a harmless religious community, and were the victims of unjust attacks.
The Albigensians were an attack on Catholic life. They taught the body was evil and the soul imprisoned. They did not believe in Jesus and this was a terrible heresy.
2. Columbus' main achievement was proving the earth was round.
True, Columbus achieved many things when he was alive, but him proving the earth was round was the main one.
3. Isabel's main supporters were the rich noblemen.
4. The Knights of St. John carried on the spirit of the Crusades.
The Knights of St. John carried on the best spirit of the Crusades in several ways. They took laws to dedicate their lives to God and set themselves up as a military organization. They fought whenever needed by the church or protecting innocent people.
5.All of the leaders of the Crusades were greedy and cruel.
Not all of the leaders of the Crusades were cruel, a few of them were good.
6. The stay of the popes in Avignon was good for the Church.
The moving of the papacy to Avignon was surprisingly good for the Church. Some were afraid it would make other people want their own pope but It did not happen.
7. Tyrannical kings could rule unchecked during the Middle Ages.
8. The Investiture Controversy ultimately resulted in a victory for the pope.
True, the Investiture Controversy was between Henry and Pope Gregory. It was a victory for Gregory and the Catholic Church. Henry was using investiture to put his own men in office and Gregory would not allow this.
9. The middle ages were a time of ignorance, when not much was accomplished.
The middle ages were a time of great accomplishments. Art, literature, architecture, and music became very popular during this time. It is false to say there were no accomplishments during this time.
10. We have no idea where the Shroud was located from the time of the 4th crusade until it reappeared in the 14th century France.
True, the Shroud reappeared in 1356 in France. The templar's had the Shroud and hid it. It survived many things and still remains a sacred relic.
II. Indicate which crusade or crusades each of the following was associated.
Richard the lion heart- 3rd
St. Louis of France- 7th
Godfrey de Bouillon- 1st
Sack of Constantinople- 4th
Eleanor of Aquitaine- 2nd
Raymond of Toulouse- 1st
Freeing of Lisbon- 2nd
St. Thomas Aquinas- St. Thomas Aquinas was born in 1226, a son of a wealthy Italian family. When he was fifteen years old he went to the University of Naples to study liberal arts. While he was there he realized he loved the Dominican monastery and the friars made an impact on him. Thomas really wanted to be a beggar but his brothers could not stand the thought of it and kidnapped him. They kept him in Rocca Secca and locked him in his room. His brothers tried to get him to break his vows of chastity, but Thomas remained strong. Two angels appeared to him while he was there and they tied a burning cord around his waist. After a year, his family finally let him join the Dominicans. He then went to the University of Paris in 1248 and after that, University of Cologne. His main teacher was St. Albert the Great. Thomas had a very holy life and lived for Christ.
St. Joan of Arc- Joan of Arc was an eighteen year old girl who was called by God to fight in the Hundred Years War and deliver France from England. Joan gave the French positive spirit and she led the army during the siege of Orleans. They won victory and Joan saved France from England. The English wanted revenged and they accused Joan of being a witch. This resulted in Joan being burned at the stake. Her mark on history was huge; she saved France's independence and saved Catholicism.
Penance at Canossa- ?
Black Death- The Black Death was the end of the High Middle Ages. While the trade in the 1300's was going on, the ships were going back and forth. The ships were infested with rats, which were flea-infested. The fleas had bacillus and this caused a deadly plague. The plague spread very fast and was really widespread and it killed thousands of people. This devastation was sad and made people bitter, as opposed to the optimism that went on in the High Middle Ages. The plague effected a lot of clergy too so there was a lack of priests.
Investiture Controversy- The investiture controversy was the conflict between Henry and Gregory. They were very close friends at first, but when Gregory became pope he became very holy. Henry was very worldly and selfish, Gregory did not agree with him. In January of 1076 Henry ordered the bishops in Germany to declare the pope deposed and threatened to take away their lands. The German bishops refused and Gregory did not plan on letting Henry get away with this. Gregory ordered that Henry was to be excommunicated. In 1077 Gregory revoked Henry's excommunication and gave him back his throne. Gregory ended up winning this victory and showed that not even an Emperor could depose a Pope.
Henry the Navigator- ?
King Baldwin- Baldwin was born in 1161 and was later known as Baldwin, the Leper King. He did not have any feeling in his limbs and was diagnosed with leprosy. King Baldwin led an army of only 500 when Saladin invaded Syria. He was very brave and a great leader even though he had leprosy. Later on he also led the army of Jerusalem to the castle even though he was so sick he could not even walk. Saladin was forced to retreat again. Saladin became very ill and King Baldwin was able to spend his last two years peacefully. He died in March of 1185.
St. Louis IX- Louis was born in 1215 and was only nineteen when he came to the throne. He married Margaret of Provence and they had eleven children. Louis was very holy and fed the poor daily, spent many hours in prayer, founded hospitals, and ministered to lepers. He believed very strongly in justice and treating people fairly. The emperor at the time was Frederick II and was very different from Louis. There was a lot of conflict going on with the Moslems and Louis established a treaty. In the spring of 1267 Louis led a crusade to North Africa, but once they arrived, a plague of sickness broke out. A few months later Louis died, he was loved by many and lived a great life.
St. Leo IX- Leo IX was the first pope of the High Middle Ages and reigned from 1049- 1054. Leo traveled to different parts of Europe working on the reform. At this time the Normans began to case problems in Italy. Leo attempted to get the Emperor to help them but he refused. He had to get an army himself and lead in the Battle of Civitella. Leo's army lost but the Norman leaders were impressed and held back their attacks. Another problem in Leo's reign was a controversy with the Patriarch of Constantinople. Michael Cerularius was a Patriarch and he attacked Pope Leo and said that the Church in Constantinople should be treated equally to the Church of Rome. Leo sent cardinals to take care of it but they ended up communicating Cerularius and he excommunicated Leo; this sent the church into schism. This was known as the Greek Schism and involved the Byzantine Empire. Leo died in 1054 and was the same year was the schism. The Church reforms continued through his successors.
St. Dominic- Dominic was born in 1170 into a Spanish family and became a priest. Dominic established an order of nuns and preachers, known as Dominicans. He mainly focused on three things, detachment from material things, learning, and devotion to Mary. The biggest significance of St. Dominic was his religious orders he established because it remains one of the most important in the Catholic Church.
St. Bernard- St. Bernard was born in 1090 and he was devoted to the Blessed Mother and the bible when he was very young. He knew from a young age he had a religious vocation. Bernard entered Citeaux in 1113 and three years after joining he was chosen to lead twelve monks in the daughter house at Clairvaux. This was very hard for him, the monks were lacking in many areas and he did not have good health. He inspired many people and a new order was established and it is known as the holiest of orders. Even though Bernard wanted to devote his life to prayer and penance, he helped the Church. He helped make peace in France and Italy. In 1135 he got permission to become cloister and was later recognized as a doctor of the church.
Frederick II- Frederick II was elected emperor in 1211 and pretended to be loyal to the pope even though he did not follow the Church. He rejected the Catholic faith and was really interested in Islam. In 1239 he was excommunicated by Pope Gregory IX because he felt the pope was inferior to him. Frederick died in Italy in December 1250.
Conquest of Granada- The conquest of Granada was the last part of the Reconquista. The Moslems in Granada were threatening Spain and would randomly burn homes and sell captives into slavery. The people fought like the Crusaders and it seemed hopeless at the time. In January of 1492, the last Moslem ruler in Spain surrendered. This happened during the rule of Isabel and Ferdinand.
Francis of Assisi- Francis of Assisi was born in 1181. His father was wealthy and Francis had no desires to be like him. While he was praying one day he heard God speaking to him to go and fix His house. Francis took this literally and sold some of his father's goods to buy materials to repair a church. His father was very upset and Francis hid, afraid of what his father would do. Francis did not want any part of his old life back and decided to become a member of the Franciscan order. He led a life of poverty, prayer, penance, and service. Francis preached throughout Italy and established a third order after the Franciscans. His third order followed the rules of the Franciscans, just lived in the world. In 1219 Francis traveled to Africa and wanted to convert Moslems. He ended up being taken prisoner. He retired in 1224 to the mountains and he meditated on the passion Of Christ and saw a vision in the sky in on September 14th. Francis received the stigmata and this allowed him to experience martyrdom spiritually. He preached until his death and died in October of 1226.
King St. Ferdinand- Ferdinand was born in 1217 and one of the heroes of the Reconquista. He was the cousin of St. Louis IX. He captured a major Moslem kingdom and brought back the bells of Santiago de Campostella. St. Ferdinand ruled as a Christian king and established many monasteries and convents. During his rule Christian civilization grew so much and he encouraged education and culture. Ferdinand died in 1252 and left a mark on Church history.
IV. Two Essays
Discuss the Spanish Inquisition. What it was, who instituted it/why, three criticisms, answers to criticisms, results. At this time there were many Jews and Moors who were baptized Catholic but not practicing Christian doctrine. These people were a threat to Spain and Queen Isabel had to choose what to do about it. She decided on the Inquisition, which was a court that examined evidence to see if a person was a faithful Christian or enemy. Some people were imprisoned and tortured. The Inquisitors are often criticized for their actions. The first is torture, which the Church has condemned since. But they used it to make people confess and were trying to do this for our faith. The second criticism is the execution of the guilty. People in our time now believe it is wrong to execute people for not believing in the religion they claim to be. But back then, they were given a change to repent and only a small number of people were executed. The third criticism is that burning at the stake was barbaric. But in the 16th century, it was not uncommon. They hung people that were still alive, cut in pieces, and boiled alive. Spain should not be the only ones to be punished. Overall, the Inquisition was a good thing and it ended up avoiding more deaths than caused.
Discuss the relationship and conflict between Henry II and Thomas Becket. How and why did the conflict develop? How did it end? What is the significance in history and future events?
Thomas Becket was a well educated deacon. He was a really good diplomat and speechwriter. He became really close with King Henry in 1154. Thomas was appointed High Chancellor, which was the highest position in England after the king. Thomas had 700 knights and led them into battle because of his high position. The archbishop of Canterbury died in 1162 and Henry wanted Thomas to be the new Archbishop. Thomas had doubts because of his ties with the Church and England. He resigned as chancellor and became archbishop on June 10th. As soon as he was archbishop, he became more holy and less worldly. This led to conflict with Henry. Their first argument was over a financial issue. Henry was being dishonest and Thomas did not agree with that. In 1164 Henry brought Thomas to trial. Thomas was found guilty of treason because Henry set it up that way. Henry sent everyone associated with Thomas into exile and seized their possessions. Thomas returned to England in December of 1170. He was truck down at the altar soon after his return. Henry grieved after hearing about Thomas' death. This led to repentance and conversion. Henry restored the Church and stood up for Catholic rights. This was a huge significance in history.