World History Chapter 27-30 Test
Charles of Austria- Charles was the successor of Franz Josef In 1916. The first thing Charles wanted to do was to end the war. So Charles talked to Kaiser Wilhelm and tried to make him withdraw from the war. Kaiser was very opposed and said no .This made the Russian government even worse. The following year Charles was still trying to make peace. He tried to secretly buy Austrian territory if peace negotiations began. But Paris and London refused. Charles made several further attempts to make peace negotiations, but none were successful. Charles and his family was sent into exile for the second time and died in 1922 from pneumonia. Charles of Austria led such a holy life that the Church is making investigations to canonize him.
Pius XII- Pius XII was diplomat and did some really good things for the Vatican. In 1942 the pope condemned persecution and Nazi statism. He condemned persecution of the Jews in 1943. Pius made a big impact in Rome. He built churches, monasteries, and convents to hide Jews. He hid hundreds of Jews in Rome and sent letters to Italian bishops to hide them too. Pius XII saved a countless number of Jews during the war.
Lenin- Lenin was a greedy man who desired power. Lenin and Bolsheviks plotted the destruction of the freedom in Russia. On November 7th the final revolution took place. Lenin was the leader of the communist party. He seized a private property, ordered no government debts, made divorce legal, took away all church lands, and re-instituted death penalty. He attacked the constituent assembly and signed a treaty with Germans which gave away Russian territory. Communism began to spread throughout the world and Christians were greatly persecuted. Lenin impacted history in a negative way.
Nicholas II- Nicholas II was Alexander III's oldest son. When Alexander III died in 1894, Nicholas II succeeded him. Nicholas really loved God and tried to do his will. But his wife, Alexandra made it very difficult. Alexandra was a German princess and dominated in their marriage. She was always involved in government matters and the mysticism of the Russian Orthodox Church. They had four daughters and one son. In October of 1905 Nicholas issued something called the October manifesto. This provided the establishment of the Duma. They now had power to make laws. Nicholas also elected a new prime minister that set up a reform plan. This created a different class of farmers, the kulaks. Stolypin was in charge of all this and in 1911 he was assassinated by a socialist revolutionary.
Wilhelm II- In 1888 Kaiser Wilhelm II was 29 years old and the successor of his father Frederick. Wilhelm was egotistical and wanted to be the sole power. He dismissed Bismarck in 1890. Wilhelm kept his relationship with Austria but let Germany be the dominant partner. In 1910 Wilhelm II was still ruing Germany.
Francisco Franco- Francisco Franco was a general along with Emilio Mola. They led the rising of the army against the government. The biggest support for the rising came from Navarra. Franco called in for 600 men and 400,000 men answered his call. Throughout the civil was 100,000 requetes were always fighting for the Church. This uprising was called the crusade. Franco received help from Germany and Italy. Franco was criticized for receiving help from Hitler. Franco did not really care for Hitler or Nazism; he just needed help with getting weapons. They were the only ones that could help. The war lasted almost three years.
II. Identifications. Six Events.
Siege of the Alcazar- The siege of Alcazar took place after the war in Toledo. The Muslims built a fort on the Toledo hills and Charles V made it into a palace. This was known as Alcazar. When Colonel Jose Moscardo received an order from the government to send ammunition to Madrid, he declared war. The Republican troops invaded the town and Moscardo hid in Alcazar. 1,760 people were also hiding in Alcazar. The communists tried to get Moscardo to surrender but it did not work. After several failed attempts to get him to surrender, the Republicans began to dig a mine under Alcazar. They wanted to blow it up and the defender of Alcazar could hear them digging. On September 18th the palace of Alcazar exploded, but actually the debris protected alcazar. The communists eventually stopped trying to attack later that day.
Reichstag Fire- Soon after Hitler rose to power; the Nazi's elected nearly 200 deputies to Reichstag. This was Germany's parliament. In February of 1933 the Reichstag building was burned down .After investigation they found that a communist was put up to it by the Nazis. He was executed for his actions. This enabled the Nazi's to put down the communists.
Battle of Midway- The Battle of Midway was the one thing that turned around the pacific war in June of 1942. The Japanese brought over their best planes and pilots to Midway Island. Admiral Raymond Spruance also sailed towards Midway on the Yorktown ship. The Japanese believed taking this ship broke the Japanese code. The Americans were greatly outnumbered and their planes were getting shot down consecutively. But then they sent our four torpedoes and the Japanese were not expecting them. Four Japanese ships were sunk and The Japanese admiral was forced to turn back. This U.S. victory was one of the greatest of the war. The Japanese were not able to replace what they had lost.
Versailles Treaty- The Versailles Treaty basically "made Germany give up her existence. There were a lot more negative results than positive from this treaty. A few of the negative points were, they were now limited to an army of only 100,000 men, Germany had to destroy tanks and airplanes, they could not have any large guns and only a few small ones. One good thing that came out of this treaty was, Poland was brought back its land from Germany, Austria, and Russia. There were two main effects from this treaty. The first was the fact that this made the Germans very bitter. This was one of the mains causes of world war I. The second was that there was emptiness in Europe from the Austrian Empire being gone.
Pearl Harbor- In November 1941 a Japanese ship sailed for Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, which was the chief naval base. The military in Hawaii were not expecting an attack from Japan. On December 7th the Japanese planes started bombing the United States in Pearl Harbor. This killed thousands of people and ruined several ships. The following day the U.S. declared war on Japan. This was a huge mistake on Hitler's part because this sent American into war with Germany. On May 7th the war completely turned around and America won.
Miracle of the sun- In May of 1918 Mary began to appear to three children, Lucia, Jacinta, and Francisco in Fatima, Portugal. She told them to pray for the world and to tell others to pray for the conversion of Russia. Mary said if this happens, there will be an era of peace. Mary continued to appear on the 13th of every month. In September she appeared and promised a great miracle in October. While the children were kneeling listening to Mary, the sun spun in the sky and it appeared as if it were coming to the ground. Thousands of people saw this and this gave evidence Mary's apparitions were real. This is called the miracle of the sun.
Topic #3- discuss the spread of communism after World War I. Include its entrenchment in Russia, its attempt to take over Spain, and the role of the Soviet Union in World War II.
The spread of communism after World War I was huge. Communism began during the war, but became much more widespread afterwards. Russia was now a communist dictatorship. Russia was renamed union of soviet socialist republic or Soviet Union. Lenin was the leading power and was trying to help the economy since he had destroyed it. In 1922 he made a new economic policy which allowed some freedom with farming and manufacturing. This did help the economy situation and it slowly got better.
Spain was divided into two groups- the nationalists and republicans. The nationalists were mostly Catholics and the republicans were mainly communists. The communists continued to attack the Catholic Church and two generals decided to do something about it. Emilio and Francisco planned a rising against the government. Francisco received weapons from Hitler and the republicans got things from the communists. The Spanish civil War last almost three years. The communists fought long and hard to take over Spain, but failed.
The Spanish civil War is a very important event of the twentieth century. As a result of this victory, peace, order and prosperity was kept in Spain. The Spanish finally were able to defeat their enemy. Europe had been lucky and not experienced the evil of the communists. But World War II began right after the end of Spanish civil war; the Nazis invaded Europe.
The Soviet Union in World War II made an agreement with Germany that their countries would not go to war against each other. The Soviet Union took over Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania in June 1940. Then they took over some of Rumania. This made Hitler upset because it was very close to Russia. Hitler planned an invasion of Russia. In June 1941 Germany attacked the Soviet Union and was successful at first, but ended up retreating in January.
The spread of communism after World War I was widespread and cause a lot of conflict. This resulted in wars and countless deaths. But this is what happens when people do not love God and are rebellious. These were very sad events that took place but they are very important to our history.
Topic # 4- Discuss the spread of Communism after World War II, including the Korean War, the Hungarian Revolution, and the Vietnam War, and the Cold War.
Communism after World War II was still big. In July 1948 the communists began the 'Berlin Blockade'. This meant that the communists stopped all traffic in Berlin. Except airplanes, they had now way of stopping that. In 1947 the communists began civil wars in Greece and Turkey. Thankfully President Truman supplied military and economic help to those countries. This saved Turkey and Greece's independence. This conflict between the west and communists is known as the cold war. It did not involve any shooting, but the U.S. government was opposing communism.
China was taken over by the communists by January of 1950. In June, the North Koreans invaded the South Koreans. Since World War II Korea was divided and South Korea became independent. The U.S. army that was sent into Korea was unprepared and untrained. This was an easy win for the North Koreans. General MacArthur became overly confident and sent the troops into North Korea. They were very outnumbered. In 1953 the communists finally signed a peace treaty and the Korean War ended.
The Hungarians were eight five percent Catholic and still had their freedom. They were doing very well considering hardly anyone had their independence because of the communists. Soviet troops invaded in October 1956 and brought tanks in the streets. The communists and Hungarians fought really hard and a lot of people died. This was known as the Hungarian revolution.
In 1961 Vietnam got divided into communist North and free south. The south had a strong Catholic leader and they did not fall into communism communist leaders convinced Buddhist monks the only way to save their country was to kill themselves. This was very sad and it was all over the news. The strong Catholic that led South Korea, Diem, was murdered. After this, South Korea became a disaster. In June 1965 the troops arrived and war broke out. The communists got control over South Korea and Cambodia. In September 1975 the communists were finally forced out of the government and Portugal was rescued.
All of these wars after World War II involved communists that were craving power. This was the last outbreak of communism. After all of this, there was a counter revolution against the communists. The Vietnam war was the worst out of these four wars. The cold and Korean wars were very similar in how they were fought and their outcomes. The Vietnam War was worse and hit the country harder.