Conclusions and suggestions

Under this chapter, the conclusions on the findings related to the research questions and other findings are presented. The chapter ends with the suggestions offered to novice translators, translation course syllabus designers and translation teachers at the university level, and future researchers.


Related to the first research questions, the following conclusion is made. To translate websites, the translators employed several translation strategies to achieve equivalence below-sentence-level, at the sentence level, and at the textual level. To achieve the below-sentence-level equivalence, the translators used nine translation strategies, i.e. literal translation, borrowing (loan, calque, and naturalization), paraphrasing, synonymy, transposition, hyponymy, abstraction change, and distribution change. However, the most frequently used strategies to translate words and phrases were literal translation and borrowing (loan words). The translators used literal translation to translate the phrases because the concepts the SL phrases referred to were congruent with the concepts possessed by TL. Most of the concepts were congruent because the topics being discussed in the websites were relatively not embedded in SL culture. The use of borrowing was a consequence of the effort to maintain the air of the field sophistication and to make sure that the target readers understand the message. To translate collocations, the translators used literal translation, synonymy, omission, paraphrasing, and clause structure change. To translate idioms and fixed expressions, they used paraphrasing strategy. Paraphrasing was a dominant strategy to translate these three lexical patternings because they were somewhat unique to SL language.

The translation strategies to translate sentences included literal translation, paraphrasing, and other strategies. Literal translation was the highest in frequency because of two reasons. First, the definition of literal translation as a strategy to translate a sentence is broader than the usual definition of literal translation, which only included word-for-word translation. Here literal translation is defined as a translation strategy to translate a ST where the SL grammatical constructions is converted to their nearest TL equivalents and the lexical words or word patternings are translated out of context, but minor adjustments are permitted. The use of literal translation to translate sentences is possible if the SL sentence structures are congruent with the TL structure. Second, many sentences were relatively simple in its structure and used words with general concepts. The use of simple sentences with general concepts was hypothesized as a result of an internationalization process. At the textual level, the translators maintained the thematic structure and cohesive devices.

In relation to the second research question, the researcher concluded that three main phases existed in the translation process; each phase comprised several steps. The three main phases were: preparation, main process, and conclusion. Preparation consisted of five steps: studying the translation brief, studying the source text, studying the TT parallel texts, preparing the glossary, and preparing the software. Within the main process, the translators looked up translation for the SL terms in the provided glossary. If a term was not listed in the glossary, they created a hypothesis and tested against the available glossary or its use in the Internet. If they were sure that the term candidate was appropriate, they would take a final decision to use it. Otherwise, they temporarily used it and would revise it later based on many considerations.

After they settled the terminology problems, they move on to settle the specific words or word combination translation. After this is done, they considered the translation strategy for the sentential level equivalence. First of all, they considered literal translation. If literal translation could not be used, they consider other strategies. Using his knowledge about translation theory, they take a decision about the translation strategies to be used. Upon finishing the first sentence, they went on to the next sentence until all sentences were done.

The last phase was conclusion. In the phase, the translators checked the translation equivalence and technical quality. If the translation equivalence quality was not satisfactory, they would return to the main process for the revision. Otherwise, they would go to the technical quality check. If the translation was not satisfactory in terms of the technical requirement, it would be revise technically. In general, the translation process was similar to the translation process for conventional texts. The difference was the use of translation software throughout the process. Using software required a set of different instrumental skills on the part of the translators. Based on this finding, the researcher proposes a model for electronic document translation process.

Related to the last research question, it can be concluded that the knowledge and skills involved in the website translation could be classified into: (a) translation knowledge, (b) bilingual knowledge and skills, and (c) instrumental knowledge and skills. Translation knowledge was required to study the translation brief to understand important aspects about the translation in general. As translation brief was in the form of text (email), linguistic skill was necessary. As the material for translation process was text, bilingual (or linguistic) knowledge was needed throughout the process. It is the transfer skills that integrate the bilingual skills with the extra-linguistic (or subject) knowledge to produce a translation. As the translation should be done with certain translation software, instrumental skills were also mandatory throughout the process.

Some findings of this current research, which do not directly relate to the research questions, support some findings of previous research, i.e. one of the problems is finding appropriate term translation. In contrast with the previous research findings, cultural problems are not major in the current research because the content of the websites is not culturally-bound, it presents information about general experience in human life and technical matters.


In relation to the conclusions, several suggestions can be offered to potential readers, especially novice translators, translation syllabus designers and translation teachers at the university level, and future researchers.

For Translators

It was found that the term translation and glossary building made at the beginning of a translation project was very important because it should be referred repeatedly throughout the project and subsequent related projects. Considering that the glossary will be used repeatedly, translators should understand the principles of finding term equivalence in TT or coining new words in composing the new glossary, so that they can take a part in supporting the development of the Indonesian lexicon in the positive sense.

The findings of this current study also include the list of knowledge and skills required by translators to translate websites. In addition, it also uncovered the process of website translation as done by professional translators. It is suggested that novice translators equip themselves with the skills and train themselves with the practical process of website translation. English - Indonesian website translation job will grow in the future, considering that economic globalization will continue to grow with the ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA) and World Trade Organization (WTO) treaties' implementation and that the Internet penetration level in Indonesiawhich is currently 8.1%[14]will also grow with the betterment in the Internet infrastructure.

For Translation Syllabus Designers and Translation Teachers

Translation teachers at English departments or foreign language departments in Indonesian universities usually teach the students with knowledge and skills related to the translation of books and novels. As the new language industry (GILT) is emerging powerfully now with the globalization trend in economy, translation-related work expands its scope into translation or localization of websites and software. The first requirement for the job is the knowledge or skills related to operating translation software and searching for information in the Internet. Therefore, it is suggested that the translation course syllabus designers adjust the syllabi by including topics related to translation software and Internet skills, among others, as follows: (a) introduction to CAT Tools, (b) basic operations in CAT Tools, (c) glossary management, and (d) Internet skills for translators. Consequently, it is also suggested that translation teachers also include such topics in their course materials and teaching.

It is further expected that the students be able to develop the further skills themselves because the usual two class house per week sessions will not suffice. This inclusion would facilitate the development of instrumental sub-competence and psycho-physiological component of the holistic translation competence. The inclusion of the three topics above will introduce the students to the basic understanding of how CAT Tools works and how potential translation equivalence can be searched in the Internet. This basic understanding will, in its turn, lead the students to develop the skills so that they will be able to operate the CAT Tools and work with glossary management and the Internet wellthis is the instrumental sub-component. Further exercises in working with these software and related hardware will make them more and more skillfulthis is the psycho-physiological component. This is one of the ways to respond to the challenge of English-related teaching in the last decades, especially in the IT development and globalization trend.

Next, it is also suggested that Translation teachers train the students the website translation skills using the framework of the proposed model in this current study. Considering the limited classroom session time, the current researcher suggests that the training be done in the skill-oriented, process-based teaching. (See the example of a teaching scenario in Appendix 18.) Such training is suitable for the early stages of translation training (King-kui in Eva, 2002). Such training will lead the students to get accustomed to seeing the big picture of the translation activities, so they would not get bogged down by the narrow focus on sentence translation only.

For Future Researchers

There are some suggestions for future researchers in relation to the limitation and findings of this research. In studying the translation process, the current researcher limited his observation to the observable behaviors. With the retrospective interview done after the process recording, the current researcher did try to obtain information about the mental process. However, the portion is not big enough to understand the process more thoroughly. It is suggested that the future researcher use the combination of recording, Think Aloud Protocol (TAP), observation, and retrospective interview to study the process. Finally, all electronic documents are basically technically the same. Therefore, it is hypothesized in this research that what happens to website site translation also happens to other electronic document translations. Theoretically, the proposed model is also applicable to electronic document translations in general. Therefore, it is also suggested that the future researchers study other types of electronic document translation. Such a study will confirm whether the hypothesis and the model are empirically acceptable and valid or not.

These data are released by The number of Indonesian people using the Internet now is, according to this website, about 25 millions. It means it increased by 23 millions in the last 9 years.

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