Managing Business Projects
The assignment requires us to think through the ways a project unfolds and to anticipate and deal with potential problems before they happen for developing the online business-to-consumers system. We must perform as a project manager in this assignment. A project has come in for the building of a system that will function as a commercial online art gallery.
We need to do task (1) to Task (5) according to this managing business project assignment. Task (1) is to analysis the four different commercial online art galleries and writes comments for each site. After that we have to draw table for listing the sites' visited and key function of each site, audit trails of research. And then we need to compare site features between four sites and write the comment for a generic model for a commercial online art gallery of our developing site.
Task (2) will have to write an explanation of the project lifecycle and choose life cycle that we think will best suit this project development and make sure the distinguish between what the client will do and what the developers will do in this project.
Task (3) is for writing the explanation of the value of prototype and description of the prototype version that we might build to show key functions of the final system. Task(4) will have to draw up an activity network of the tasks and testing of prototype in our activities and assign the tasks to our team.
Task (5) will have to combine our outputs form task(1) to (4) into a single document. with table of contents references and so on.
(a) URL address- http://www.artgallery.co.uk/
(b) Access date -17.October.2009
Access time -1:00pm
This website can search the artist easily by keyword. It can also search by price, subject, style and width and height. So, it is an easy search website.
It shows the best selling artist. Those are the most popular artists at ArtGallery.co.uk.
It demonstrates the parts of art. So, the customer can see the art clearly.
When click the art image, it shows the detail of art. It also organizes the image of the art of one artist.
When the customers buy item, it demonstrates the delivery information. The customer can also buy the art gift voucher. So, the customer gives the present conveniently.
URL address - http://www.artsales.com.au/
Access date -17.October.2009
Access time -2:00pm
The image of the art of this website is very small in the home page.
This website contain site map and so the customer easy to use. And easy to buy art and sell.
The customer can search the art by artist, style, category, colour, max price and keyword in buy art online page.
Firstly the customer register the site when they buy the art. So, the customer can cause the confused due to the filling of the registeration information.
The website demonstrate the artwork detail, shipping details and options of the art.
URL address- http://www.boundlessgallery.com/
Access date -18.October.2009
Access time -3:40pm
It is a complex website. It have .
It contain the sending of e-Postcard to the friend.
It also contain the contact's information of artist. So, the customer can contact to their favourite artist. This website contain the demonstartion of artist's biography and statement.
This website also contain FAQ function in help feature.
Customer can get membership benefit by making member in this website.
URL address- http://www.art.com/
Access date -19.October.2009
Access time -5:00pm
This website demonstarte best sellers, collections, artists, photography.
It is a beautiful werbsite because it has well-designed structure.
It show the product type as a list. So, the customer easy to choose the product type and also show the art styles, subject, artists and collection as the form of list.
Therefore, it is also a easy to use website for the customer.
When customer buy the item,they can add art gift vouchers. Art gift voucher is sepical service for the customer who can make the order with art gift vouchers.
Special feature - If the customer not fill his name in the contact detail, the website does not allow and show the “required” error. In the same way, the firt name of the customer, last name, email address, phone number, address 1, address 2, country, postcode.
The site map describes in the home paga of this site.
The paypal site of the link is given in the home page.
In the home page, free e-book art buyer's guide of the link is given for the art buyer.
In the home page, this site show the best sellers of the art and also describe collections, artists and photography. Discount information also show in the home page.
Special features – This site give track order link in the home page.
For the customer, this website describes best sellers, newest, artists of the month. In the home page, this site gives the link of “Ads by Google” for the customer.
Special feature - This website gives another link of other art website.
For the art gallery site, system development life cycle systems development life cycle (SDLC) is a conceptual model used in project management that describes the stages involved in an information system development project, from an initial feasibility study through maintenance of the completed application. So, using the system development life cycle systems development life cycle (SDLC) is appropriated for this project. The following phases are needed to do the project.
1) INITIATION PHASE
2) PLANNING PHASE
3) DESIGN PHASE
4) DEVELOPMENT PHASE
5) TESTING PHASE
6) IMPLEMENTATION PHASE
7) PROJECT EVALUATION
8) MAINTENANCE PHASE
9) DISPOSAL PHASE
1. Initiation Phase
To produce a high-level view of the intended project and decide the goals of the project.
The first phase of project management is the Initiation phase. It's during this initial time that the project goal is established. During Phase 1, if a project manager has been assigned, this person works with the involved parties, otherwise known as the project stakeholders, to fully determine how to measure the success of the project once all work is complete.
2. Planning Phase
The planning phase is the most critical step in completing development, acquisition, and maintenance projects. Careful planning, particularly in the early stages of a project, is necessary to coordinate activities and manage project risks effectively. The depth and formality of project plans should be commensurate with the characteristics and risks of a given project.
Project plans refine the information gathered during the initiation phase by further identifying the specific activities and resources required to complete a project. A critical part of a project manager's job is to coordinate discussions between user, audit, security, design, development, and network personnel to identify and document as many functional, security, and network requirements as possible.
3. Design Phase
The design phase contains changing the informational, functional, and network requirements identified during the initiation and planning phases into unified design specifications that developers use to script programs during the development phase. Program designs are constructed in various ways. Using a top-down approach, designers first identify and link major program components and interfaces, then expand design layouts as they identify and link s maller subsystems and connections. Using a bottom-up approach, designers first identify and link minor program components and interfaces, then expand design layouts as they identify and link larger systems and connections.
Contemporary design techniques often use prototyping tools that build mock-up designs of items such as application screens, database layouts, and system architectures. End users, designers, developers, database managers, and network administrators should review and refine the prototyped designs in an iterative process until they agree on an acceptable design. Audit, security, and quality assurance personnel should be involved in the review and approval process.
Management should be particularly diligent when using prototyping tools to develop automated controls. Prototyping can enhance an organization's ability to design, test, and establish controls. However, employees may be inclined to resist adding additional controls, even though they are needed, after the initial designs are established.
Designers should carefully document completed designs. Detailed documentation enhances a programmer's ability to develop programs and modify them after they are placed in production. The documentation also helps management ensure final programs are consistent with original goals and specifications.
Organizations should create initial testing, conversion, implementation, and training plans during the design phase. Additionally, they should draft user, operator, and maintenance manuals.
4. Development Phase
The development phase involves converting design specifications into executable programs. Effective development standards include requirements that programmers and other project participants discuss design specifications before programming begins. The procedures help ensure programmers clearly understand program designs and functional requirements.
Programmers use various techniques to develop computer programs. The large transaction-oriented programs associated with financial institutions have traditionally been developed using procedural programming techniques. Procedural programming involves the line-by-line scripting of logical instructions that are combined to form a program.
5. Testing Phase
The testing phase requires organizations to complete various tests to ensure the accuracy of programmed code, the inclusion of expected functionality, and the interoperability of applications and other network components. Thorough testing is critical to ensuring systems meet organizational and end-user requirements.
If organizations use effective project management techniques, they will complete test plans while developing applications, prior to entering the testing phase. Weak project management techniques or demands to complete projects quickly may pressure organizations to develop test plans at the start of the testing phase. Test plans created during initial project phases enhance an organization's ability to create detailed tests. The use of detailed test plans significantly increases the likelihood that testers will identify weaknesses before products are implemented.
Testing groups are comprised of technicians and end users who are responsible for assembling and loading representative test data into a testing environment. The groups typically perform tests in stages, either from a top-down or bottom-up approach. A bottom-up approach tests smaller components first and progressively adds and tests additional components and systems. A top-down approach first tests major components and connections and progressively tests smaller components and connections. The progression and definitions of completed tests vary between organizations.
6. Implementation Phase
The implementation phase involves installing approved applications into production environments. Primary tasks include announcing the implementation schedule, training end users, and installing the product. Additionally, organizations should input and verify data, con and test system and security parameters, and conduct post-implementation reviews. Management should circulate implementation schedules to all affected parties and should notify users of any implementation responsibilities.
After organizations install a product, pre-existing data is manually input or electronically transferred to a new system. Verifying the accuracy of the input data and security configurations is a critical part of the implementation process. Organizations often run a new system in parallel with an old system until they verify the accuracy and reliability of the new system. Employees should document any programming, procedural, or configuration changes made during the verification process.
7. Project Evaluation
Management should conduct post-implementation reviews at the end of a project to validate the completion of project objectives and assess project management activities. Management should interview all personnel actively involved in the operational use of a product and document and address any identified problems.
Management should analyze the effectiveness of project management activities by comparing, among other things, planned and actual costs, benefits, and development times. They should document the results and present them to senior management. Senior management should be informed of any operational or project management deficiencies.
8. Maintenance Phase
The maintenance phase involves making changes to hardware, software, and documentation to support its operational effectiveness. It includes making changes to improve a system's performance, correct problems, enhance security, or address user requirements. To ensure modifications do not disrupt operations or degrade a system's performance or security, organizations should establish appropriate change management standards and procedures.
9. Disposal Phase
The disposal phase involves the orderly removal of surplus or obsolete hardware, software, or data. Primary tasks include the transfer, archiving, or destruction of data records. Management should transfer data from production systems in a planned and controlled manner that includes appropriate backup and testing procedures. Organizations should maintain archived data in accordance with applicable record retention requirements. It should also archive system documentation in case it becomes necessary to reinstall a system into production. Management should destroy data by overwriting old information or degaussing (demagnetizing) disks and tapes. Refer to the IT Handbook's “Information Security Booklet” for more information on disposal of media.
Value of prototypes
A prototype is a rudimentary working model of a product or information system, usually built for demonstration purposes or as part of the development process. A prototype is also draft screen design of the program for example website draft screen. Prototype can increase the speed of system development.
Good prototypes also minimize the time and money needed for development while maximizing the return. Good prototypes allow you to leverage your existing technology and change directions as needed.
The most important function of a prototype is to validate. Even good ideas fail. A prototype allows you to test your idea, to find out if people will actually pay for it. It may be a great idea; however, the value of the idea is irrelevant if the product or service cannot be actualized for a price people will pay for it. Good prototypes generate feedback from the market for better or for worse. It's better to kill a bad idea before you take the finished product to market then to waste valuable time and money in developing a full version no one will buy.
Advantages of prototyping
* May provide the proof of concept necessary to attract funding
* Early visibility of the prototype gives users an idea of what the final system looks like
* Encourages active participation among users and producer
* Enables a higher output for user
* Cost effective (Development costs reduced)
* Increases system development speed
* Assists to identify any problems with the efficacy of earlier design, requirements analysis and coding activities
* Helps to refine the potential risks associated with the delivery of the system being developed
* Various aspects can be tested and quicker feedback can be got from the user
* Helps to deliver the product in quality easily
* User interaction available in during development cycle of prototype
Prototype version that used for our online art gallery
Proof-of-Principle Prototype (Model) (also called a breadboard). This type of prototype is used to test some aspect of the intended design without attempting to exactly simulate the visual appearance, choice of materials or intended manufacturing process. Such prototypes can be used to “prove” out a potential design approach such as range of motion, mechanics, sensors, architecture, etc. These types of models are often used to identify which design options will not work, or where further development and testing is necessary.
Form Study Prototype (Model). This type of prototype will allow designers to explore the basic size, look and feel of a product without simulating the actual function or exact visual appearance of the product. They can help assess ergonomic factors and provide insight into visual aspects of the product's final form. Form Study Prototypes are often hand-carved or machined models from easily sculpted, inexpensive materials (e.g., urethane foam), without representing the intended color, finish, or texture. Due to the materials used, these models are intended for internal decision making and are generally not durable enough or suitable for use by representative users or consumers.
Visual Prototype (Model) will capture the intended design aesthetic and simulate the appearance, color and surface textures of the intended product but will not actually embody the function(s) of the final product. These models will be suitable for use in market research, executive reviews and approval, packaging mock-ups, and photo shoots for sales literature.
Functional Prototype (Model) (also called a working prototype) will, to the greatest extent practical, attempt to simulate the final design, aesthetics, materials and functionality of the intended design. The functional prototype may be reduced in size (scaled down) in order to reduce costs. The construction of a fully working full-scale prototype and the ultimate test of concept, is the engineers' final check for design flaws and allows last-minute improvements to be made before larger production runs are ordered.
Breadboard—This is basically a working model of your idea, intended to serve the basic function of showing how the product will work, with less concern for aesthetics. "The breadboard doesn't have to look good or even work well," stated Jacquelyn Denalli in Business Start-Ups. "It simply proves your idea can be reduced to practice." Tomima Edmark, writing in Entrepreneur, added that a breadboard "is used in the early stages of product development to demonstrate functionality and communicate your idea to potential model makers or manufacturers so they can create a finished product for sale."
Presentation Prototype—-This type of prototype is a representation of the product as it will be manufactured. Often used for promotional purposes, it should be able to demonstrate what the product can do, but it is not necessarily an exact copy of the final product. "In building your model," said Denalli, "consider these issues: the item's sale price, materials, manufacturing costs, marketing details, safety factors, how it will be sold and distributed, and the profit margin. If you plan to license your invention to a manufacturer, you can often do so with a model."
Pre-Production Prototype—This type of prototype is for all practical purposes the final version of the product. It should be just like the finished product in every way, from how it is manufactured to its appearance, packaging, and instructions. This final-stage prototype is typically expensive to produce—and far more expensive to make than the actual unit cost once the product is in full production—but the added cost is often well worth it. It is most valuable because it enables inventors and producers to go over every aspect of the product in fine detail, which can head off potential trouble spots prior to product launch. In addition, Denalli pointed out that "you can make drawings or photographs of the sample to use in brochures, mailings, pamphlets, advertising, and so on. You can also use the prototype to show to potential buyers, whether manufacturers or buyers for department stores."
U Maung, U Htun
U Maung, U Htun
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U Maung, U Htun,
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U Mya, U Maung
(c) URL address- http://www.artgallery.co.uk/
Ø Access date -15.11.2009
Ø Access time -2:00pm
URL address- http://www.artsales.com.au/
Ø Access date -17.11.2009
Ø Access time -3:40pm
URL address- http://www.art.com/
Ø Access date -21.11.2009
Ø Access time -1:00pm
Ø URLaddress- http://www.boundlessgallery.com/
Ø Access date -20.11.2009
Ø Access time -5:00pm