Traditional transactional leadership exchange style


Working in the healthcare industry for 20 years has allowed me the opportunity to work with many different types of managers. Over the 20 year span, recent changes in the type of leadership have begun to arise. The traditional transactional leadership exchange style of "if you do this you will be rewarded, but if not you will be punished" no longer works where there is a shortage of healthcare workers. Followers are now demanding to be treated with respect and will only comply with requests if they have a vested interest in it. Hospitals are no longer paid just on services provided such as room, medication, procedures, etc. They are also paid are whether the customer service provided at the hospital was "very good" for the patient. Customer service comes directly from the nurses, doctors, maintenance, environmental services, dietary, admissions, and the numerous other workers that come into contact with the patient during their stay. Followers react positively to leaders who they can relate to, not to those who seem unobtainable.

A new emerging type of leadership is Transformational leadership. Transformational leadership has become a very popular model generating a great deal of discussion and research. The role of the leader has changed. Autocratic and authoritarian leaders, although they still exist, are no longer the norm. Importantly, followers have also changed. Often, they are knowledgeable workers-informed, enlightened, and often knowing more than the leader about how to get the task done. They are also an increasingly diverse group, and one leadership style cannot work effectively with them all. Transformation leaders must use individualized, motivational, intellectual, and ideal approaches when working with followers in order to produce optimal results.

Bernard M. Bass and Ronald E. Riggio (2006) provided this definition for Transformational Leadership:

Transformational leaders are those who stimulate and inspire followers to both achieve extraordinary outcomes and, in the process, develop their own leadership capacity. Transformational leader's help followers grow and develop into leaders by responding to individual followers' needs by empowering them and by aligning the objectives and goals of the individual followers, the leader, the group, and the larger organization.

Components of Transformational Leadership

Avolio, Bass, and Jung (1997) have identified the components of transformational leadership call the MLQ. These components are:

Idealized Influence (II) - These transformational leaders are admired, respected, and trusted. Followers can identify with this type of leader and want to try to be like them. Followers view these leaders as being capable of extraordinary capabilities, persistence, and determination. There are two parts to the Idealized Influence: the leader's behaviors and the elements that are recognized by the followers. Leaders who have idealized influence are willing to take risks and can be counted on to the right thing because of high ethical and moral standards.

Inspirational Motivation (IM) - these leaders inspire followers by providing meaning to their work. Enthusiasm and optimism are key components and help motivate followers to envision a positive future. This type of transformational leader usually is highly charismatic and well as inspirational.

Intellectual Stimulation (IS) - These transformational leaders stimulate followers to be innovative and creative by challenging the norm. The phrase "that's the way it has always been done" is not acceptable for these followers and they are always looking for new ways to be more efficient and finding solutions to problems. Followers are not criticized when they come up with new ideas and are encouraged to try them.

Individualized Consideration (IC) - Transformational leaders pay attention to each individual's needs and act as a mentor in order to achieve growth and full potential. Differences of followers are noted and recognized. These leaders must adapt to each difference by means of communication. An example of this is while some followers require for their leader to provide specific structure, others may only need encouragement. This leader remembers previous conversations with their followers and is highly visible in the work space. The leader delegates projects or assignments in order to enable their follower to grow and develop into leader themselves.

The Full Range of Leadership Model

Transactional leadership is when a follower gets rewarded for doing what they were asked to do or punished for not doing what was asked. Components of transactional leadership include (Bass 2009):

Contingent Reward (CR) - This has been found to be somewhat effective in motivating others to achieve expected levels of development, but not as much as transformational leadership. This transaction involves coming to an agreement with followers that a reward will be given in exchange for satisfactorily carryout out an assignment.

Management-by-Exception (MBE) - This seems to be more ineffective than Contingent Reward because when in an active MBE role, the leader is searching for errors in order take corrective actions. When followers know that leaders are out looking for mistakes, a negative environment begins to develop. When a leader is in a passive MBE role, the leader does not react until an error or issue is brought to them due to large number of followers that report to the leader.

Laissez-Faire Leadership (LF) - This is the avoidance or absence of leadership and is to be the more ineffective. Responsibilities of leadership are ignored and action is not taken even when brought to the leader's attention.

Transformational Leadership Training

One study done by Hussan, Fuwad, and Rauf (2009) examined how transformational leadership training can impact employee's satisfaction with trained supervisors. This study took the four concepts of transformational leadership i.e. Individualized Consideration, Intellectual Stimulation, Inspirational Motivation, and Idealized Influence and used them as a measure. The impact of transformational leadership training intervention has been studied on three performance orientated perspectives. These are the effect of training on attitudinal outcome of trainees, task performance of subordinates, and the impact of training intervention on financial performance (Hussan, 2009). It was identified that followers work better under a charismatic leader than a leader exhibiting individualized consideration.

Motivation involves "a choice by an individual to expend energy towards one particular set of behaviors over another" (Hussan, 2009).With this study, a number of predictive variables has been identified that affect the motivation towards a training program. External factors like work environment, organizational climate, overall organizational commitment and career planning, supervisory support, work policies, organizational environment, and training design have been identified as affecting motivation towards a training program (Hussan, 2009).

For this study, area managers from a large scale private healthcare company were chosen for studying the effects of transformational leadership training on attitudinal outcomes. The training was scheduled to be conducted in their offices over a one year period. The experimental group consisted of twelve managers of which ten of them were men. Information was collected from them that included the subordinate's perception of transformational leadership behavior of his/her manager and satisfaction with them. The MLQ questionnaire uses the four measures of transformational leadership. These are: individualized consideration, intellectual stimulation, inspirational motivation, and idealized influence.

Training intervention was organized by an experienced training consultancy which divided the training into four modules over a course of 7 days.

All participants evaluated themselves on transformational leadership characteristics. This session lasted for 3 days which included identifying the best and worst leaders around them and the importance of the 4 I's (idealized influence, individual consideration, inspirational motivation, and intellectual stimulation).

The session was an introduction to goal setting theory. The session concluded with a case study in which participants had to use transformational leadership style.

Goals and objectives thought up in session 2 were revised and operational details were discussed. Attitude and role playing were part of this session.

This session focused on the identification of any observable changes in participant's behavior with report to what was recorded earlier.

The results of the study showed improvement in the transformational leadership behavior of supervisors after the training. Results show that subordinates of the supervisors receiving training perceived their supervisors as higher on the 4 I's. The results also showed that followers were also more satisfied with their supervisors enough to where the training was shown as a key component for this. Goal setting was able to change leader's transformational behaviors in the expected direction. Typically, hospital's forefront leaders are clinicians who have not received any formal training in leadership. They are put into these roles as leaders without the proper training. This leads to poor employee and patient satisfaction because the newly appointed clinical leaders only know that their followers should do as they are told because that is the way things have always been. Transformational Leadership training can help enable these new leaders to motivate and inspire their fellow clinical employees to do more than what is required while still maintaining the respect of the group.


This study examines the link between leadership styles and health and well-being outcomes at work. Data from workers providing care to the elderly were used to test this hypothesis. Transformational leaders are those who "broaden and elevate the interests of their followers, generate awareness and commitment of individuals to the purpose and mission of the group and....they enable subordinates to transcend their own self-interests for the betterment of the group." (Nielson, Munir, 2009) Self-efficacy is the belief in one's capabilities to organize and execute the courses of action required to produce given attainments (Munir, 2009). The four concepts in this study are that the leader is charismatic (idealized influence), has a clear and attractive vision (inspirational motivation), the leader motivates followers to be innovative (intellectual stimulation), and the leader acts as a mentor (individualized consideration).

Self-efficacy has been linked to well-being: Employees high in self-efficacy are more likely to report lower levels of perceived stress (Munir, 2009). A number of studies suggest that transformational leadership may exert its influence on followers through self-efficacy by having high expectations which stimulates the Intellectual component. Transformational leaders encourage followers to continually development which empowers and increases motivation. This is part of the Inspirational component of Transformational leaders. The hypothesis in this study analyzed follower's self-efficacy and how their leader's transformational leadership behavior influences them over time. The participants consisted of direct care workers of the elderly in a home environment or nursing homes and they were given questionnaires on two occasions within an 18-month interval. At time one (T1), 447 questionnaires were completed (response rate 81%) and 93% were from females being the average age of 44 who worked in their current workplace for 12 years on average. The majority of the staff was healthcare assistants (62%), 12% were nurses, 18% had healthcare related education, and 8% did not have any healthcare education (Munir, 2009). At the second distribution (T2), there was a 53% response rate. Measures used for this study was the MLQ.

Results supported the reciprocal nature of the relationship between managers' perceived transformational leadership style and self-efficacy (Munir, 2009). The study found that T1 influenced transformational leadership at T2 which supports previous research that the characteristics of the followers influence their manager's leadership style (Munir, 2009). The results indicate that it is likely that by training leaders to exert certain behaviors it may be possible to improve the follower's well-being. Rather than changing entire organizational structures, leadership training may bring positive effects in followers.

HUMOR and Transformational Leadership in healthcare

The healthcare industry has high demands for positive outcomes and quality results. Hospitals are now being monitored, published, and reimbursed based on these results. Customer and Employee satisfaction are now the top priority for hospitals which demands a switch in leadership styles. If a patient develops a pressure ulcer, contagious infection, falls, or has some other type of sentinel event while in the hospital, the government will not reimburse the hospital from that point forward. The responsibility of the patient and payments are the responsibility of the hospital. When a patient is discharged from the hospital, a Gallup Survey is mailed to the patient and the results the patient provides are published on a public government web site for anyone to review. If a hospital comes up with low patient satisfaction scores, an overall percentage of the hospital reimbursement will be taken away. With these things noted, hospitals are now scrambling to find innovative, efficient ways to provide patient satisfaction while preventing a sentinel event such as falls, pressure ulcers, and contagious infections. The government has now forced hospitals to care about how the patient feels during their stay (rather than just making them better) and this comes from customer service and quality care. The people (followers) on the front line are the ones who hold the hospitals fate and this has called for an overhaul in leadership styles. Followers who work in hospitals are now given high expectations and demands with no room for error. Data is monitored through advanced computer technology from the administering of medication to following national protocols such as giving aspirin for every person that comes into the emergency room with chest pain.

With all of these added pressures for healthcare workers, the customer (patient) must also feel that all of their needs are being met. The biggest complaint is the food being too cold or the room being too hot. These may be simple complaints, but they are enough for the patient to score their entire stay as not being "Very Good". Leaders are under the greatest pressure to produce results that will give the hospital optimal profit while making sure that each and every patient feels that their stay was "Very Good". Telling healthcare workers what to do does not work anymore. Healthcare workers (Followers) must believe in the same vision as the hospital and want to go above and beyond in order be optimal. In order for this to be done, followers must believe that their leader has the same vision as the hospital and is willing to provide individual attention to each person in order to get this done. The leader must be creative in motivating and inspiring their followers to work twice as hard for the same pay and with little thanks.

One study examined the relationship of transformational leadership, leader humor, and follower creative performance in a healthcare setting (Arendt, 2009). Recent research has demonstrated the positive influence of leader humor on critical outcomes such as performance, stress, and acceptance of change (Arendt, 2009). The research done by Avolio examined how humor affected the relationship between the leadership style and meeting targeted goals set for the year. Units that reported to transformational leaders who used high humor achieved higher goal levels than units led by low-humor leaders (Arendt, 2009). "Neocharismatic theory" is a term used to describe how Transformational Leaders have four characteristics in common. First, leaders facilitate outstanding organizational achievements such admiration and commitment. Second, leader's behaviors lead to extraordinary levels of follower's behaviors. Third, leader's behaviors are both "symbolic and emotionally appealing" by being supportive and empowering. Fourth, leaders are associated with a wide range of outcomes which includes the traditional satisfaction and performance and the non-traditional such as follower self-esteem and identification with the leader (Arendt, 2009). Followers who trust their leaders are more willing to take risks and be more confident in their creativity.

In order for a leader to seem humorous, they must come across as being positive and unexpected. Leaders can create a social environment this is supportive of a follower's creative performance which will enable the follower to be innovative which can bring solutions to problems or "off the wall" suggestions. Transformational leaders build confidence in followers through intellectual stimulation, inspirational motivation, individualized consideration, and charisma (Arendt, 2009). Followers feel empowered and can deal in a positive manner to situations such as stress or ambiguity. Transformational leader's energy is absorbed by the followers and can lead to highly charged work environment which is needed in a healthcare setting.

A study was done on 721 individuals in a healthcare organization in the Midwestern United States. Each participant completed one of two online surveys -one designed for leaders and one for followers (Arendt, 2009). Measures used for this study were: Transformational Leadership Scores, Leader Humor Scores, Assessment by Leaders of their follower's creative performance, and control variables such as age, gender, sense of humor. The results supported the hypotheses that suggest transformational leaders who use humor to a high degree elicit high levels of creative performance from their individual's followers. The results have positive implications for leaders and organizations interested in increasing creative performance and innovation. When it comes to the organization's social environment, leaders can cultivate or kill their follower's creativity (Arendt, 2009).

Interaction between Transformational Leadership and Leader Humor


Working in healthcare has now expanded to include multi-cultural personalities. Nurses are being sought after in the Philippines to come to the States in return for citizenship or a higher level of education such as a Master's degree. Nurses from all over the world are coming to the United States to work in our healthcare organizations. This study was done because research on transformational leadership in a multicultural context is limited. In order to study multi-cultural personalities, five traits are observed. These personality traits are cultural empathy, open-mindedness, social initiative, emotional stability, and flexibility (Woerkom, Reuver, 2009) Cultural empathy refers to the ability to empathize with the feelings, thoughts and behaviors of members of different cultural groups (Woerkom, 2009). Open-mindedness refers to the open attitude and the absence of rigid prejudices towards other cultural groups, their behaviors and cultural habits (Woerkom, 2009). Social initiative reflects the individual's tendency to actively approach social situations and to take the initiative in intercultural contexts (Woerkom, 2009). Emotional stability is defined as the ability to remain calm when facing acculturative stress and to perform effectively under these stressful circumstances (Woerkom, 2009). Flexibility refers to an individual's ability to switch from habitual and long-held behaviors to new standards and procedures that promote adaptation to the new cultural environment (Woerkom, 2009).

This study was done to see if there was a positive relationship between transformational leadership style and job performance in an international context. A survey was sent out to members of the Corporate Target Group (members are considered high potential employees) with a 65% return rate. Of the 138 participants, 10% were female and all respondents were between the age of 27 and 56. The participants were geographically spread with 79% being Dutch, 21% European, 14% North America, 2% Asians and 1% North Africa (Woerkom, 2009). The MPQ was used to measure this study. Results of this study show that managers with more cultural empathy, open-mindedness and social initiative score higher on transformational leadership (Woerkom, 2009). Although it was hypothesized that emotional stability and flexibility would have a positive impact on transformational leadership, it could not be confirmed (Woerkom, 2009) .


Future research on Transformational Leadership needs to take a broader and more varied perspective. Although a great deal of research has focused on the outcomes of transformational leadership, less attention has been given to the process. Areas that need to be addressed in future research with the intent of providing some direction for the better understanding of transformational leader are: The Development of Transformational Leader, Authentic Transformational Leadership, Predictors and Contingencies, and Transformational Leadership Training. With exploring the role of self-efficacy and transformational leadership, future studies should examine whether the sub-components of transformational leadership exhibit direct effects on well-being over time. In regards to the dimensions of the multicultural personality and transformational leadership, future research might be interesting to relate the self-perceptions on multicultural personality to subordinates ratings of the transformational leadership style of their manager. Extensive studies should be done with the role of transformational leadership and new healthcare overhaul taking place by 2012.


Transformational leaders bring out the best in followers and are an inspiration to the workplace. When surrounded by ineffective leaders, the morale of an organization can hit rock bottom. Ineffective leaders, or transactional leaders, affect employee's ability to provide quality healthcare and superior customer service. Transaction leadership, particularly management-by-exception, can be a source of conflict, burnout, and stress. The empowerment of followers is a critical component of transformational leadership. With this empowerment, followers feel a sense of competence, self-control, and purpose. Empowerment is not for every organization, but it is for the healthcare environment. Employees attend specialty training and are licensed to care for their patients and to make sure that they cause no harm to them. Transformational leaders who empower these employees to develop creative and innovative way to provide safe quality care to patients always healthcare organizations to continue to grow and prosper. Since transformational leaders are able to build strong follower commitment and loyalty, empowerment is not a danger. Building on follower trust and promoting self-efficacy creates a more satisfied workplace.

Transformational leaders must also consider each follower as an individual and understand that they cannot all be treated equally. It is important for the leader to show that they recognize the multiple identities of their team as having diverse followers. The team leader must understand the capabilities of each team member (follower) and delegate tasks that are challenging, but obtainable for that follower. Intellectually stimulating leaders take advantage of diverse backgrounds and experiences of their team members. Since no team member is an expert in all areas, the team leader must be clear when summarizing and testing for consensus.

A common misconception of transformational leadership is that it is all smoke and mirrors. It is criticized as being a feel-good type of leadership that produces zero results. Based on studies presented in this paper, it is clear that transformational leadership does indeed affect group performance and leads that performance beyond expectations. Transformational leaders teach enable followers to be more creative, more resistant to stress, more flexible and open to change, and eventually become transformational leaders as well. The healthcare workplace is an essential place where Transformational Leaders must be in control. Healthcare workers are a classic example of how these followers are knowledge-based and can provide great feedback and creative ideas on how to improve patient care.

Evidence in San Antonio still indicates that this type of leadership style has not been embraced by the healthcare community. Organizational and structural changes are constantly being made and then dictated down to the leader which then has to do the same for the followers. These changes are made without feedback ore insight from the front-line workers. Leaders in place continue to try to use the transactional approach in the healthcare workplace to produce results, and time and time again are disappointed. The leaders get penalized for not producing results and new leaders with the same mindset are brought it. It's a vicious cycle that once may have worked, but no longer is an effective tool. Leaders with "old school" mindsets are hurting these organizations and the patients who go into them. Since most leaders that are chosen are clinicians, they are not trained in leadership or management. It is the same mindset as "do what I say or else". This type of leadership is poison for a company and based on the studies provided in this paper, they don't work. Healthcare organizations must recognize this and send their leaders to transformational leadership training in order to change the culture and the mindset of the healthcare workplace.


  • Arendt, Lucy A.(2009). Transformational leadership and follower creativity: The moderating effect of leader humor. Review of Business Research, Vol. 9 Issue 4, 100-106, 7.


This study examines the relationship between transformational leadership, leader humor, and follower creative performance in a healthcare setting. Results show that leader use of humor balance the relationship between transformational leadership and follower initiative performance; such that leaders with a transformational leadership style who use high levels of humor produce high levels of initiative from their followers.

Chiu, Chia-Yen, Lin, Hao-Chieh, Chien, Shu-Hwa (2009). Transformation Leadership and team behavioral integration: The mediating role of team learning. Academy of Management Proceedings, 1-6, 6.


This study examines the relationship between transformational leadership, team learning, and behavioral integration in work team settings. Two questions are addressed: How does transformational leadership affect team behavioral integration? How do team learning orientation and learning behavior intervene in the relationship of transformational leadership and team behavioral integration? This study shows the distinction of behavioral integration that can outline the different types of exchanges and interactions between team members. Showing the complexity of team leadership and processes, evidence shows that transformational leadership has implications for behavioral integration through influences on team learning orientation and learning behavior.

Giri, Vijai N.,Santra, Tirumala (2010). Effects of Job Experience, Career Stage, and Hierarchy on Leadership Style. Singapore Management Review, 1st Half, Vol. 32 Issue 1,85-93, 9.


This study examines the impact of age, career stage, and hierarchy of employees on their leadership styles. Data was collected from 324 employees of different businesses in India. Organizations included were steel manufacturers industry, dredging corporations, airlines, real estate, banks, R&D, telecom, and the information technology firms. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire was used to measure the leadership styles. Results show that transformational and laissez-faire leadership styles of employees differ significantly on job experience, career stage, and hierarchy. This study shows that the less experienced employees have, score high on transformational leadership style, and highly experienced employees score high on laissez-faire leadership style.

Hassan, Rasool A.1, Fuwad, Bashir A.1, Rauf, Azam A.2 (2009). Pre-training, motivation and the impact of "Transformational Leadership Training" on satisfaction with trained supervisors: A field experiment. Allied Academies International Conference: Proceedings of the Academy of Strategic Management (ASM), Vol. 8 Issue 2, 35-41, 7.


This study examines the impact of transformational leadership training on employees' satisfaction with trained supervisors. This study investigates the role of training motivation in explaining the training effectiveness in transformational leadership context. Results of the study show a significant and positive effect of with the trained supervisors. Supervisors trainees motivation towards a transformational leadership training program significantly and positively affects outcomes.

Kirkman, Bradley,L., Chen, Gilad , Farh, Jiing-Lih, Chen, Zhen, Xiong3 ,Lowe, Kevin B. (2009). Individual power distance orientation and follower reactions to transformational leaders: A cross-level, cross-cultural examination. Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 52 Issue 4, 744-764, 21.


This study examines how that individual follower's "power distance" orientation and their group's shared perceptions of transformational leadership were positively related to follower's procedural justice perceptions. Power distance orientation also moderated the cross-level relationship that transformational leadership had with procedural justice; the relationship was more positive when power distance orientation was lower, rather than higher. Procedural justice, in turn, linked the unique and interactive relationships of transformational leadership and power distance orientation with followers' organizational citizenship behavior. Country differences did not significantly affect these relationships.

Li Yueh, Chen, Andy, Ying Lee, Barnes, F. Barry (2010). The effects of leadership styles on knowledge-based customer relationship management implementation. International Journal of Management & Marketing Research (IJMMR), Vol. 3 Issue 1, 1-18, 18.


This study examined how transformational and transactional leadership styles affect knowledge-based customer relationship management implementation in the Taiwanese hotel industry. A model of the relationship was created based on earlier research and used Bass and Avolio's Multi-Factor Leadership Questionnaire along with questions to assess a multi-dimensional construct for CRM. The model was tested and modified using structural equation modeling. The results generally support a positive relationship between transformational leadership styles and the implementation of knowledge-based CRM while rejecting transactional styles.

Mancheno-Smoak, Lolita1, Endres, Grace M., Polak, Rhonda, Athanasaw, Yvonne2 (2009). The Individual Cultural Values and Job Satisfaction of the Transformational Leader. Organization Development Journal, Vol. 27 Issue 3, 9-21, 13.


This study investigates from the individual's self-assessed perspective about how work related cultural values and level of job satisfaction affect his or her propensity towards transformational leadership behaviors. Drawing from Kouzes and Posner's leadership model of the five practices of exemplary leadership, Dorfman and Howell's adaptation of Hofstede's four national culture dimensions to the individual level, and Smith, Kendall, and Hulin's job satisfaction scales, a framework was developed, with cultural values and job satisfaction variables as independent and transformational leadership variables as dependent. Three hypotheses were proposed: 1.) significant correlation exists between work related cultural values of the individual and transformational leadership behaviors, 2.) significant correlation exists between job satisfaction of the individual and transformational leadership behaviors, and 3.) work related cultural values and job satisfaction are related to transformational leadership behaviors. The analyses revealed support for the first hypothesis in that all cultural values correlated with the Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI) scales for transformational leadership behaviors.

The second hypothesis was only partially supported via significant negative correlations for two of the Job Descriptive Index (JDI) measures for job satisfaction. The third hypothesis was partially supported with some of the variables and the regression equation yielded forty-two percent of the transformational leadership score attributable to the work related cultural values and job satisfaction variables.

Nielsen, Karina and Munir, Fehmidah (2009). How do transformational leaders influence followers' affective well-being? Exploring the mediating role of self-efficacy. Work & Stress, 23: 4, 313 — 329.


Transformational leaders employ a visionary and creative style of leadership that inspires employees to make independent decisions and develop in their work. There is some evidence that the transformational (inspirational) leadership style is linked to employee burnout and stress. However, little research has focused on the psychological mechanisms that could explain this link, nor has there been a focus on positive affective well-being. We propose that transformational leaders influence their followers' self-efficacy, thereby affecting affective wellbeing in followers. The study was carried out within parts of an elderly care department in a Danish local government. A theory-driven model of the relationships between leadership, self-efficacy and affective well-being was tested using Structural Equation Modelling. The results indicated that followers' self-ratings of self efficacy mediated the relationship between transformational leadership style and positive affective well-being. Only limited evidence for a direct path between leadership behaviour and positive affective well-being was found. These findings have implications for how organizations may promote employee well-being, through interventions directed at supporting transformational leadership behaviours.

Rowley, Sam, Hossain, Farhad and Barry, Paul (2010). Leadership Through A Gender Lens: How Cultural Environments and Theoretical Perspectives Interact with Gender. International Journal of PublicAdministration, 33: 2, 81 — 87


This study examined a theoretical overview of what makes a leader effective using the theoretical lenses of behavioral and contingency theories and the theory of transformational leadership. The study then analyzed these theories from a gender perspective. The presence and effects of gender discrimination in the workplace, managerial and subordinate preconceptions and attitudes as identified in the current body of literature and the possible consequences for potential female leaders are discussed. Finally, the article turns to discuss the interaction between national and organizational culture and gender in terms of leadership opportunities. The aim of this article is to contribute to the discussion on the above areas and to provide a bringing together of perspectives so as to facilitate future research.

Spoelstra, Sverre (2009). Transformational leadership: Scientific concept or management concept? Academy of Management Proceedings, p1-6, 6.


This study examines that transformational leadership is better understood as a management concept: the very design of the concept ensures that transformational leadership is highly desirable. The construction of an inferior shadow concept (transactional leadership) and loose associations with moral goodness are the two main ways in which this is achieved. "Theories" of transformational leadership do not aim at understanding social reality, they even hide aspects of social reality in order to create a management concept we feel inspired by.

Van Woerkom, Marianne and de Reuver, Renée S. M. (2009). Predicting excellent management performance in an intercultural context: a study of the influence of multicultural personality on transformational leadership and performance. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 20: 10, 2013 — 2029


This study examines the influence of the five dimensions of multicultural personality via transformational leadership on excellent performance in a sample of managers (N ¼ 138) working in an expatriate assignment or in a job dealing with subordinates of different cultural backgrounds. As expected, cultural empathy, open-mindedness and social initiative were found to have a positive effect on transformational leadership. However, no significant effects were found from emotional stability and flexibility on transformational leadership. Furthermore, a more transformational leadership style led to higher performance in an intercultural context, which was measured using management performance appraisals. Since an indirect effect of cultural empathy, open mindedness and social initiative on performance via transformational leadership has been found in this study, it seems that both these dimensions of multicultural personality and transformational leadership are needed for excellent managerial performance in an international environment.

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