Training And Development

In simple words, training and development means imparting specific skills, abilities and knowledge to an employee for performing the job assigned to him. According to Armstrong (2003), Training is the use of systematic and planned instruction and development activities to promote learning.

Armstrong M, 2003, 9th edition, Human Resource management practice, kogan page

Training is a short term process. After an employee is selected, placed and introduced in an organization he must be provided with training so that he understands the policies and procedures of the organization and perform his job effectively and efficiently. Development on other hand is a long term educational process utilizing systematic procedure by which managerial personnel learn theoretical knowledge for general purpose. Development is not only skill oriented instead it provides general knowledge which covers not only those activities which improve job performance but also those activities which improves the personality of an employee.

According to Cole (1999), the training and development of employees is an issue that has to be faced by every organization. The amount, and quality, of training carried out varies from one organization to another. Following are the factors which influence the quantity and quality of training and development activities:

  • Change in the external environment (e.g. technological changes, new legislation etc.)
  • Degree of internal change (new processes, new markets etc.)
  • Availability of suitable skills within the existing work force
  • Adaptability of existing work force
  • The extent to which the organization supports the idea of internal carrier development
  • The commitment to senior management to training as an essential part of economic success
  • The extent to which management see training as an motivating factor in work
  • Knowledge and skills of those responsible for carrying out the training

Cole, G.A, 1999, 4th edition, personnel management, letts educational , gosport

Aims and Objectives of Training and Development

The primary objective of training and development is to make sure the availability of skilled and enthusiastic workforce of an organization. In addition to that there are four other objectives

Individual Objectives - help employees in achieving their personal goals, which in turn, enhances the individual contribution to an organization.

Organizational Objectives - assist the organization with its primary objective by bringing individual effectiveness.

Functional Objectives - maintain the department's contribution at a level suitable to the organization's needs.

Societal Objectives - ensure that an organization is ethically and socially responsible to the needs and challenges of the society.

Systematic approach to Training and development

Systematic approach ensures a complete training process that matches the needed training to identified complexities, consequences and hazards. The process supports the analysis, design, development, implementation and evaluation of training.

Analysis - Analysis ensures that training programs are oriented specifically to the requirements of the job and its associated tasks. The analysis phase identifies training goals which will equip learner's with knowledge and skills to meet the organization's needs.

Design - A plan that guides the creation of all training materials and strategies. A system by which learner and trainers identify learning objectives, necessary facilities and job responsibilities etc.

Development - Documentation, training materials, props and evaluation tools produced during the development process are based on the training programs design

Implement - it consists of activities related to the actual training, over and above allocation of resources, planning and scheduling. It also includes delivering of training and performance of trainee is assessed

Evaluation - Determining effectiveness of training before, during and after implementation of training

Identifying learning and training needs

Training needs to be analysed as it filled in the gap between what is happening and what should happen. All learning and training according to Armstrong 2003, need to be based on an understanding of what needs to be done and why it needs to be done. Learning needs should be analysed, first by the organization as a whole (corporate needs); second by their departments, teams within the organization (group needs) and third for an individual employees (individual needs) which is shown as below:

Learning needs analysis - areas and methods

Source: Armstrong M, 2003, 9th edition, Human Resource management practice, kogan page

At corporate level training needs to be analyzed by making a business plan which seeks to examine the long term and short term goals of the organization. The analyst must also plan the human resources and address following questions:

  • How many people should an organization recruit?
  • How do employees make the firm competitive, domestically and internationally?
  • How the firm will gain competitive advantage with the skills, knowledge and experience of an employee?
  • What are the target jobs which require training?

Customer surveys and satisfaction data collected in the form of feedback form will also help people at the corporate level to decide what training is required to which department or to which group or to which individual.

At group or departments level managers assess there department training needs by identifying their performance with the help of the surveys and develop there review accordingly. They also need to keep in mind what kind or skills, knowledge and abilities are required for the task assigned to each job.

Individual training needs are analyzed on their performance basis. Employees training are determined on the basis of their knowledge, skills and abilities which are already learnt by them so that if they are not competent in a certain job there is a need of training for them. Learning should be specific so that time and money is not wasted on the training which an employee already known.

Training Programmes

Training programmes are important as it enables a new recruit to become productive as quickly as possible. It may consist of short term formal on the job coaching, a series of job rotations, training modules or a lengthy training like apprenticeships. According to Armstrong 2006, every training programme needs to be designed individually, and the design will continually evolve as new learning needs emerge, or when feedback indicates that changes are required.

Armstrong M, 2003, 9th edition, Human Resource management practice, kogan page

Following are the types or training may be found in organizations:

In company on the job

In company on the job training consists of induction training, job instructions, apprentice training for the new recruits or by the existing employees who are require training. These training are given by managers, trainers or team leader etc. training is cheaper, relevant, practical dealing with day to day requirements of the job. But on job training comes with a disadvantage as many managers or team leaders are inexperienced to train their subordinates which will in turn effect the organisation

In company off the job

In company off the job training consists of lectures, special study, films etc which will help employees to develop more skills and knowledge that can be used in various situations. In generally take place outside their work place and it's an expensive programme as it require special trainers from outside, places like conference halls, lecture theaters etc.


  2. Cole, G.A, 1999, 4th edition , personnel management, letts educational , gosport
  6. Armstrong M, 2003, 9th edition, Human Resource management practice, kogan page
  7. Human Resource Management for MBA students, Iain Henderson, (2008), CIPD,

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