# How the water cools in 10 minutes?

### Data analysis

Aim: to find out how different type of insulation affect how quickly boiling water cools after certain amount of time.

### Introduction

In this data analysis I will explore if different type of insulator effects how the water cools in 10 minutes. I will use 3 type of insulation. These are wool, bubble wrap and foam. I will reach my aims measuring the temperature of water every minute within 10 minutes with 3 different type of insulator around the beaker each 10 min. Each insulator will be repeated 2 times to make sure my results are reliable.

• Beaker
• Stopwatch
• Thermometer
• Bubble wrap
• Wool
• Foam
• Kettle
• Water
• Elastic band

### Method

1. Set up the equipment as shown ( see diagram)
2. Boil the kettle, when it has boiled pour 150ml into the beaker, making sure the temperature is at 90°C.
3. Draw your table and set the stop watch to 00.00
4. Place the insulation around the beaker and to hold it use the elastic band.
5. Start the stopwatch and record the temperature of water every minute for 10 minutes.
6. The experiment gets repeated two times for each type of insulator.
7. I done 3 tests, wool, foam and bubble wrap.

### Safety

• Tie long hairs back
• Stand up all the time
• Wear goggles
• If any glass broke report to teacher e.g. beaker
• Wear gloves
• Do not run
• Bags in slot
• Keep equipments away from the side
• Stools under table

1 min

89°C

85°C

85°C

86.3°C

2 min

85°C

79°C

83°C

82.3°C

3 min

85°C

80°C

81°C

82°C

4 min

82°C

72°C

78°C

77.3°C

5 min

75°C

75°C

71°C

73.6°C

6 min

72°C

74°C

75°C

73.7°C

7 min

72°C

72°C

73°C

72.7°C

8 min

70°C

70°C

71°C

70.3°C

9min

70°C

69°C

70°C

69.7°C

10 min

68°C

68°C

69°C

68.3°C

1 min

88°C

88°C

86°C

87.3°C

2 min

84°C

85°C

84°C

84.3°C

3 min

81°C

84°C

80°C

81.7°C

4 min

79°C

80°C

77°C

78.7°C

5 min

77°C

77°C

76°C

76.7°C

6 min

74°C

76°C

73°C

74.3°C

7 min

72°C

75°C

72°C

73°C

8 min

70°C

73°C

70°C

71°C

9min

69°C

72°C

69°C

70°C

10 min

67°C

69°C

68°C

68°C

1 min

88°C

86°C

86°C

86.7°C

2 min

84°C

82°C

82°C

82.7°C

3 min

82°C

80°C

79°C

80.3°C

4 min

74°C

78°C

78°C

76.7°C

5 min

77°C

75°C

76°C

76°C

6 min

76°C

74°C

74°C

74.6°C

7 min

73°C

72°C

72°C

72.3°C

8 min

72°C

71°C

71°C

71.3°C

9min

70°C

69°C

69°C

69.3°C

10 min

69°C

68°C

68°C

68.3°C

1 min

88°C

2 min

86 °C

3 min

84 °C

4 min

79°C

5 min

78°C

6 min

76°C

7 min

74°C

8 min

72 °C

9 min

71°C

10 min

69 °C

1 min

86.3 °C

2 min

83.3 °C

3 min

81 °C

4 min

78.6 °C

5 min

76.6 °C

6 min

74.6 °C

7 min

72.3 °C

8 min

71.6 °C

9 min

69.3 °C

10 min

68.3 °C

1 min

86.6°C

2 min

84.3°C

3 min

81°C

4 min

78.3°C

5 min

76.6°C

6 min

74.3°C

7 min

72.3°C

8 min

70.3°C

9 min

68.6°C

10 min

67.3°C

### Conclusion

In conclusion my experiment was great success as my repeats seem to be reliable and they are accurate. From looking at my table and graph my results are very close to each other and they are all around the same temperature, e.g. my results for wool after 5 min was 7t °C, 75 °C and 76 °C. This clearly shows that my results have been taken then accurately and this makes them reliable. The average for the 5th minutes was 76 and when I compared this to Sam Hill's result which his average was 77 °C. This shows my results are reliable as they are very close to other results from the other group. Average has helped me to see the results from Sam's graph and compare them to mine and also it helped me to make my graph as you can see the highest and lowest results. To work out the average you add all your results and divide them by how many numbers there are so in my case 3. There are negative correlations between my graphs. This correlation tells me that as time go on the temperature of water reduces. My results are not very precise because I have not used any decimal place therefore I have rounded my result into 1 whole number however this has make it easier for me to do my graph and it is easier to read my results.

To make sure my results are accurate I have used standard deviation. As you can see below I have used a formula to work standard deviation out. The formula is:

In this formula stands for sum of all. Stands for your result, stands for the average of the results and then stands for how many sets of results you got.

This is an example on how to work out standard deviation on paper:

1. 82-80.3=1.7
2. 1.7*1.7=2.89
3. 3-1=2
4. 2.89/2=1.445
5. 1.445= 1.20

Time

1

0.65

5

0.5

7

0.35

1

0.5

5

0.21

7

0.7

### Standard deviation

1

1.9

5

0.9

7

0.5

As you can see above my results for standard deviation are close to 0. This means my results are precise and accurate except foam 1st minute which is 1.9 there might be an outlier or mistake in reading the thermometer when I was taking down the result.

There were three insulators that I used in my experiment, wool, foam and bubble wrap. Most of my results were similar but there were some differences. For example after 4 minutes my results were 82,79,74 as you can see in my graph and as I mentioned the negative correlation for all insulator so as time goes on the temperatures decreases this is a obvious fact as radiation lowers temperature.

There are some factors which affect my experiment and bring down the temperature of water.

Radiation is energy. It travels through space in the form of particles or waves. Radiation is energy such as heat, light, sound, microwaves, radio waves, X-rays and radar. Radiation is everywhere. This affects my experiment as radiation emits heat and it affects the temperature of water.

Conduction could be another factor which affects my experiment. Conduction is transfer of heat from one molecule to another substance. Not all substance conduct heat at same speed. Metals are considered good conductors since they can speedily transfer heat. Stone is also a moderately good conductor, but wood, paper, air, and cloth are poor heat conductors. Conduction is taking place inside the beaker. Conduction cannot take place very much is the insulator such as bubble wrap which contains air inside it.

Convection is a process of heat transfer by the actual movement of medium particles. Liquids and Gases are mainly heated by convection

In other words, in convection when the molecules get heated they rise up and the cold ones come down and this to get heated up and they rise. And the cycle continues. Convection is taking place in my experiment. The steam is the main cause of temperature of the water decreasing.

In summary I think my experiment was successful and bubble wrap is the insulator makes the water cool down the quickest as in the results we can see that after 10 minutes bubble wrap average temperatures is 68°C which is the lowest temperature from the other 2 insulators also looking at Sam's result we can tell that after 10 minutes their average temperature is 67.3°C I am confident on my conclusion because when I compared my result to Sam Hill's result our average was close to each other which makes it reliable.

### Evaluation

The data was collected by first setting up the equipment. After setting up the equipments I measured the temperature of water every minute for 10 minutes with 3 different insulation around the beaker every 10 minutes. Each of the insulation tests was repeated 2 times to make sure that my results are reliable. I used a thermometer to measure the temperature of water. I also used some of the safety rules that I listed at the start. I made sure I wear goggles all the time to protect my eyes from steam also I made sure I'm standing up during the experiment, just in case if beaker breaks, also it was important to stand up as I was pouring hot water this stopped me from burning myself.

For my results I can come to a conclusion that they are accurate. If there was any problem I could have told this by looking at the graph but the line of best fit in my graph meets most of the point plot in the graph so therefore my results are reliable and accurate.

I can tell my results are accurate because looking at Sam Hill's averages and looking at my averages they are very similar for example first minute for wool Sam has an average of 86.3 °C and I have an average of 86.7 °C so there is only 0.4 °C of difference between my result for this specific insulator and timing. Below I will talk about how to improvement my experiment so we get even closer averages.

Here is the average for foam:

### Foam

 Sam Me Time Average Time Average 3 84 °C 3 82 °C 5 78 °C 5 73.6 °C 7 74 °C 7 72.7 °C

There are number of things that I could have done in my experiment to improve the accuracy of my data collection. One of these improvements will be having a wooden lid on the beaker, as I mentioned in my conclusion woods stops conduction which will help me to get more accurate results.

Another way which I could have improved my accuracy was using a digital thermometer. This would have allowed me to get the accurate temperature of water with in 2 decimal places which you couldn't have done that with the normal thermometer. This would have made my results much more precise.

Also I could have used different techniques to read the thermometer. I could have gone down on to my knees to get level with the water and thermometer then write down the results. Not doing this may not affect my results very much but still could have made sure it was accurate.

We also could have used different amount of water and measure in different times this would have made are results much more reliable as we could have compared them to the other results that we have now

Looking at my graph I can tell my results are reliable because as I compared and mentioned once my results are very similar to Sam's result which makes it reliable. However looking at my graph there are some outliers. Outliers are values that are much different from the rest of the values, they can be known as errors as well. I could get outliers because maybe I read the temperature wrong which could affect some of my results and as I mentioned in my improvements using a digital thermometer can decrease the amount of outliers.

After 5 min using bubble wrap the average is measured at 76.6°C in Sam's result and in the same result my average appears to be 76.6°C Rounding up the numbers is doesn't make your results precise and we both done that also it will make it harder to compare but because we both rounded the results up so there are not much problem. Overall I think my results are accurate and reliable.

Looking at the scatter graph the results are accurate as the range bars have been plotted in good and they don't overlap, but however for improvement on my graph I shouldn't have counted my outliers when I was working out my average.

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