Gsm-based Temperature Data Control Telemetry

Chapter 1 : Introduction

1.1 Introduction:

“Gsm-based Temperature Data Control Telemetry” is a programmable electronic thermostat to monitor, control and maintain the temperature on specific area but informing the user at the same time. This device also able to inform user via through SMS when the temperature is not on preset condition which can be set by the user manually. Therefore, this device will automatically adjust the temperature back to preset condition.

In the Food and Beverage field, some food or beverages need to be maintaining in a certain temperature for storage purposes. Beside this, this device may used on indoor plantation worldwide or even for poultry farming especially in equator country as this device may help to increase the production, improve the quality and reduce the losses. In factory, this system can be used to maintain the temperature of the machines or finished products so that the functionbility of the machine will not be affected and the quality of the finished product remains excellent. For some chemical laboratories, certain chemicals are sensitive to temperature changes and certain unwanted incidents could occur.

There are many more uses and functions of this device that has remained unexplored. Thus, the commercial value of this product is still vast in many sectors.

1.2 Aim:

The main aim of this project is to construct a device able to control the temperature of a specific area set by the user and also informing the user of any actions taken by the device using Group Special Mobile technology.

1.3 Objective:

* To create a system which can able to detect and read the temperature of the environment (around -20˚C ~100˚C)

* Build a system which able to inform the user when the temperature is not within the level and the control system will turn on and inform user via SMS

* Learn the usage of LCD display and program it by using Programming language

* Build a cooling system which able to lower down the temperature when it is too high

* Build a heating system which able to increase the temperature when it is too low

* Build a alarm system for safety feature

1.4 Project Specification:

The main purpose to build this project is able to control the temperature automatically depends on the raise or falls of the temperature. So this project must have the standard feature of thermostat which is to maintain the temperature of a room or other place.

* Operating temperature range around – 20˚C ~ 100˚C

* LCD screen display the temperature that been read by sensor

* Cooling system provided

* Heating system provided

* Gsm Based function ( To SMS)

* Able to SMS and inform user when cooling/heating is On

* Alarm system will turn ON and inform user when temperature is over maximum point

* Programmable

Chapter 2 : Literature Review

2.1 Product Comparison:

Thermostat TS010 [1]

Thermostat Honeywell VisionPro 8000 [2]

Thermostat T1050 [3]


Product comparison one.bmp

product comparison 2.bmp

product comparison 3.bmp

Operating Temperature

Operating temperature - 0.0-40.5°C



Voltage supply

Voltage supply: 3V DC; 2 x AAA batteries

Voltage supply: 3V DC; 2 x AAA batteries



LCD Display

LCD display

LED display

Touch Screen




Heating and cooling system

Heat Pump with Touch panel

Auto selection for Heat and Cool system

1 Heat/1 Cool Conventional and Heat Pump Thermostat

One of All 2-stage cooling, 2-stage heating for use with gas/electric, heat pump or hydronic system



Programmability -Universal Programming from 7 Day to Non-Programmable

This 5+2 day programmable thermostat has up to 4 time periods per day.

Change over system


Auto/Manual Selectable

Auto changeover system, 2-Stage Heat/2-Stage Cool for use with gas/electrics, heat pumps, electric and hydronic heat.

Table 1 : Product which already exist in market

2.1.1 Competitive Analysis and Criticisms:

Pic for product comparison.bmp

Table 2: Competitive Analysis

Table Description

From table 2, it shows the models of the unit which is sold in the market. The two main different in this project compared to the market is that, this project have extra features which is alarm and also able to SMS to users. Alarm system is very important because whenever the temperature is overheated and caused fire, the alarm will ring and SMS will be send to the user to alert them to take immediate action, SMS function in this project is mainly to inform all changes of temperature and alarm to user to keep the updated for the temperature changes.

2.2: Component Comparison :

2.2.1 PIC Microcontroller

PIC microcontroller becomes famous and popular is due to this type of controller is wide available and it is inexpensive. The main function of the microcontroller is for user to program and control the project. Microcontroller is a processor with build in own memory storage for user to store the program. Microcontroller got l/O port which is input and output for user to control for either send data or receive data. There are many types of PIC microcontroller. Different type of PIC got different performance and specification. Table below shows the “family” of the PIC microcontroller and the performance.

10F222 [4]

12F683 [5]

16F877A [6]

Flash Memory




Input / Output Pin












Operation Speed





Table 3: Comparison for PIC microcontroller

Microcontroller “family” 16F will be choose for “GSM-based temperature data control telemetry” this project due to the Flash memory is even larger compare to other 2 family member. Microcontroller 10F and 12F don't have enough l/O pin to support this project, LCD screen need 8 inputs to control and display. There are still many type of PIC microcontroller such as 18F, but 16F is already good enough and achieve the requirement for this project.

2.2.2 Temperature Sensor :

In this project temperature sensor is mainly used as an input device. The main purpose of using temperature sensor is used to sense and measure air temperature within the computer environment. There are many types of temperature sensor that available at reasonable prize. Temperature sensor LM35, LM56 and SHT 75 is under consideration, and table below show the comparison between these three types of sensor.

LM35 [7]

LM56 [8]

SHT75 [9]

Range (˚C)

-55 ~ 150

-40 ~ 125

-40 ~ 125

Build in ADC




Output signal




Accuracy (%)

± 1

± 2

± 0.3

Operating voltage

From 4V to 30V.

1.250V band gap voltage reference by using three external resistors

2.4V to 5.5 V(recommended supply voltage is 3.3V

Build in Amplifier




Table 4 : Comparison between temperature sensors LM35, LM56 and SHT75

Temperature sensor SHT75 is being selected because of its ability to provide an accurate result compare to LM35 and LM56. Besides that, this temperature sensor has a wide temperature range, it is suitable for this project and the range needed for this project is within -20˚C ~100˚C. The build in ADC in the sensor will auto convert analog output to digital signal sand send to circuit board by using microcontroller to control dc component such like Dc fan. SHT75 has build-in amplifier which use to amplify the output voltage.

2.3 Tool Comparison:

Comparison for High level language and Low level language

High Level Language [10]

Low Level Language [10]


Java, Visual basic, C language

Machine code and Assembly language


* Require less time and efforts that due the preparation cost of the program.

* Easy to maintain , understand and modify when desired compare to low level language

* User friendly

* Able to compile the instruction to low level language such like assembly language

* Does not need any compiler to compile

* Faster when executing

* High performance than high level language.

* Have the full control of memory storage


* Need a compiler to optimize

* Not all high level language can support low level I/O

* Slower when executing

* Cannot fully access the processor architecture

Unable to control full of memory storage

* Difficult and very hard to program

* Very hard to read or learn for the uninitiated

* Not really good in self documenting

* Hard to maintain and modify

* Less support on debugging and development

Table 5 : Comparison between High Level Language and Low Level Language

Table Explanation:

From table 5, it shows that the pros and the cons between High level language and low level language. For this project, these 2 types of programming are under consideration. High level programming language will be chooses for this project. Because it is easy to program and the compiler is able to compile from high level language to lower level language and use for other application. Error checking is easy for high level language.

High level language “Microsoft Visual basic 6.0” will be used in this project. Visual basic 6.0 software will act like a “bridge” for this project and able to link up the PC and the GSM modem to SMS to user. Visual Basic 6.0 this software is fully support every WINDOW environment, so it is available for most of the Pc.

Microcontroller is the main system for this project and it needs a programming language to instruct it. Microcontroller will work as ADC and convert the analog signal to digital signal, and the digital signal will send out as the input to the circuit board. Another high level language will be used for this project to program the microcontroller, which is C language. C language is easy to maintain and easy to write compare to assembly language. It can compile to lower language by using the compiler too. C language is intended to be a modern, simple, object oriented, general purpose, and type safe programming language.

2.4 Technology

2.4.1 GSM:

The Global System of Mobile Communication (Gsm) is a standard for digital cellular communication was created by the European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations (CEPT) for the purpose of designing a pan-European mobile technology.Gsm can fully support SMS, voice call function, mail, fax and etc. Gsm provide high speed transmission for data, and the speed can go up to 9.6kbit/s. Gsm can operate on different spectrum of frequency bands. [11]

2.4.2 Different Frequency Bands:

Different country support different type of band frequency spectrum. Mobile phone is the device which is fully support by Gsm system. Most of the mobile phone will support more than one frequency band, so that the mobile phone is able to roam between different countries. The transmission frequency provides a better coverage for each country. This also provide consumer seamless same number connectivity in more than 218 countries.

Dual band is a frequency band which supported a mobile phone which operates with two kinds of frequencies which is 900Mhz and 1.8Ghz spectrum. There's only certain country which works with dual band frequency which is most of the South America, European country, Asian country, Australia, and also New Zealand.

Tri-band is another kind of frequency band which is 900Mhz, 1800Mhz which is the same as d Dual band. But it has another extra frequency which is 1900Mhz. Tri-band is available throughout Asian country, Afica, North America, Australia,Europe, and also New Zealand.

Quad-band phone covers all the frequencies which are 1,8GMHz, 1.9GHz, 800MH is and additional frequency which is 850Mhz. This additional frequency enables a quad band phone to roam in almost every country in d world. 850Mhz GSM frequency is only available and workable in the South America while both 1900Mhz and 850Mhz GSM services are supported in the United State of America. The standardize GSM are used in 99% of the country globally. And it is believed that GSM cell phone will be the only cell phone standard that will be used in the world.

2.4.3 How GSM Work:

Base station will connect all the user cell phone to the Base station Controller (BCS). The base station wills ten reach to the ““Multifaceted” heart of a cellular network which is Mobile Switching Center (MSC) [12]. The main function of MSC is to route all the incoming call or outgoing call from the user cell phone from a fix-line to another network. Home location register(HLR) and Visitor Location register are the component inside the MSC [12] and the main function of HLR handle all the information for the user, and register the user as network's subscriber and VLR provides those information related to roamers. The mailbox will be activating when user is unavailable. The incoming call will diverted to the mailbox system. Some Voicemail system will link to SMSC (SMS center) network. This network will generate a message to inform the mail owner that is the new mail in their cell phone mailbox. The message is able to reach even the user is on a voice call, because voice call and SMS is using the different radio frequency. So the voice calls system and SMS will never interface each other.

2.4.4 What is SMS?

Short Message Service (SMS) is a wireless technology that able to receive and send of the message or even email from a mobile phone to the other. SMS also can support many type of broadcast message. The message will be sent to a specific mailbox, which actually will be routed to a cell phone and user can stored it and reread it anytime.

As suggested by the name "Short Message Service", the data that can be held by an SMS message is very limited. One SMS message can contain at most 140 bytes (1120 bits) of data, so one SMS message can contain up to:

* 160 characters if 7-bit character encoding is used. (7-bit character encoding is suitable for encoding Latin characters like English alphabets.)

* 70 characters if 16-bit Unicode UCS2 character encoding is used. (SMS text messages containing non-Latin characters like Chinese characters should use 16-bit character encoding.) [13]

Advantage of using SMS:

* 100% support by Gsm mobile phones

* Inexpensive

* An SMS is discreet

* Able to send ringtone, wallpaper, picture, animation and operator logo

* Can store and reread the message after received it

* Provide a convenient for deaf and hearing impaired people to communicate

* Able to send a message to a large group of people at the same time

* Support various of language including Chinese, Japanese, English , Korean and etc

* Can apply on some wireless application

* Message can be send even the mobile phone is switch off

2.4.5 How SMS Work:

SMS applications are only as good as the networks that transport them. Following are the four crucial nodes that enable the transmission of SMS messages across the air interface. The message send out from the user to another person will first receive by the Base station and the base station will send this message to the Mobile switching center (MSC). The MSC will automatically locate and routing between cell phone in a area been given. MSC will hold the record, status and information of the subscriber. HLR and VLR are two components in the MSC. HLR (Home location register) will store the subscriber information and VLR (visitor location register) will provide the relevant information to the roamers. Then the message is now send to SMSC (Short Message Service Center). It will store the message until the destination of the receiver mobile phone is available and able to receive. SMSCs rely on Gateway Mobile Switching Center (GMSC) to communicate with TCP/IP networks. A GMSC is an MSC which have the capability of receiving short message from am SMSC. Home Location Register (HLR) which subscribes routing information and delivers short messages to home MSC or roaming MSC of the destination mobile unit is interrogated by the GMSC

2.5 Technology Comparison:

There are few methods which can use to send a single message from a Pc to mobile phone :

1) SMS through GSM modem

2) SMS through Bluetooth

3) SMS through Infrared

Gsm modem [15]

Bluetooth modem [16]

Infrared [16]



100M (max)

5M (max)

Communicate with all the mobile phone




Multiple language




The signal able to penetrate wall








Table 7 : Comparison between methods of SMS

Table Explanation:

From table 7, is show that all three connections have the pros and cons in it which is categorize into a few. If compare the range of all three connections, Bluetooth connection and GSM modem have the further diameter range compared to infrared connection which only have 5 meter at the maximum. While, GSM modem have unlimited range and Bluetooth have 100 meter at d maximum. The next comparison is the communication for computer and Bluetooth which have some disadvantage for Bluetooth and infrared, because not every production of mobile phone is equipped with Bluetooth and infrared. But, every mobile phone uses GSM frequency to communicate to other mobile phone and also GSM modem which makes GSM modem an advantage in this category of comparison. The freedom of connection between these three kinds is whether d signal can send it through permanent object in between of the connection line. Bluetooth and GSM modem can be send throughout almost anywhere but infrared can't do this. So by using GSM modem to SMS is the best way compare to the other.

Chapter 3: Methodology

3.1 Block Diagram:

Project description:

This project has been separated into two parts which is the hardware part and the software part. The hardware design is consists of 2 parts namely the control system (heating or cooling) and monitoring.PIC microcontroller is use on this project on the software part. The microcontroller will be programmed to be able to receive the data and make comparison to the temperature level set. It will identify whether the readings for temperature level are within the level set in it and send the information to the LCD display and monitor it out. The reading will always display on the LCD. If the temperature exceeds the level set, the microcontroller will send output signal to activate and light up the LED indicator and the control system (heating or cooling) and the data also will send to PC by using microcontroller. A GSM modem will be use on this project for SMS system. The GSM modem will be programmed to interface with the PC. Safety and secure are provide by this project. When the temperature is over maximum point, the alarm triggered. When the temperature is not within the level set, the control system (cooling/heating system) or the alarm system will trigger and the Pc will receive the data and SMS to user by using GSM modem.

Initially the temperature sensor will sense the temperature and all the data will send to microcontroller and monitor it. Microcontroller will compare the temperature. When the temperature is over the set point but not maximum point, the microcontroller will send the output signal to the cooling system and turn it. Once the temperature reach the maximum point, the alarm system will tigger. When the temperature is lower than the set point, the heatering system will turn On. During turning On the control system (heating/cooling) and alarm, the microcontorller will send the siganl to the Pc which is linked with Gsm modem and SMS to onwer.

3.3 Project Initial Design:

This the initial design for this project. The LCD will display the current temperature and the temperature sensor is on the top of it to sense the environment temperature. Two from beside outputs will connect to a fan and a heater which use to control and maintain the temperature. The LED is use to indicate when the heating system or cooling system is turn On. So that the user is able to know which control system is turn On. Safety feature also included in this project

Project planning will take 2 weeks time to complete. The research will start on the second week with the project planning and proposal preparation.The research will take around 7 weeks to complete. Because to able to complete this project, gaining knowledge from research is the first step to build up this project. Component purchased will take around 4 weeks, because there are a lot of components needed on this project such like microcontroller, sensor, capacitor and etc. Hardware development will take 9 weeks and during develop it, the software develep will begin on the week 8. Test and trouble shooting on hard ware part will take 2 weeks after complete the hard ware part. Once the software part is done, another deffiicult part will be the interfacing between the hardware and software. Test and trouble shooting will take around 4 weeks. During hardware and software development, all the experiment and data will be record down and write into the thesis. So thesis will be start at week 10 during the development of for hardware and software. Before complete the thesis, preparation for postal and presentation will be started, because preparation for presentation need time to prepare and pratice to perform the better performance.

Chapter 4: Project Management

4.1 Risk Assessment and Management:

Risk assessment is emphasizes on the safety of everybody within individual surroundings. It's mandatory that safety measures and enough precautions are taken care of to prevent any unwanted accident happen. This project involves some risk assessments which counter measures had been taken to tackle the problem. Some risk might really affect the whole progress of the project. So, some solution and prevention is needed to overcome the problem.

Table below are the risk and preventive measure:




Sensor inaccurate

Unable the get the accurate temperature data

Ensure that there is no obstacle at the sensor

Display screen malfunction

Unable to display anything

Make sure the connection is not broken

Wire broken

Cause system failure or no connection

Used wire that is insulated.

Microcontroller burned/function failure

Affect the whole system of the circuit board

Understand the characteristic of Microcontroller and make sure its function under the correct voltage level

Cooler or heater function failure

Cooling system and heating system failure

Make sure the system is working under the correct voltage level

Pc break down

GSM module can't work and unable to SMS to user

Always check and maintain the condition of the Pc

Table 7 : Risk Assessment and Management

4.2 Budgeted Cost For Project :


Component and Material





Temperature Sensor










LCD Screen















PCB Board

RM 20


RM 20







Gsm modem















Alarm Buzzer

RM 10



Grand Total


Table 8: Price for each component

The table above shows the cost of the project which is RM387 which is excluding the labour cost. Thus, inclusive of labour cost which work 8 hour per day for 149 days at the rate of RM3.50 per hour.

The total cost = ((RM3.5 x 8 hours) x 149 days) + RM387 (Project cost) = RM4559

Chapter 5 : Conclusion:

5.1 Conclusion

This project will contribute to some specific place like green house, fire alarm system, poultry farm and etc. This project can maintain the temperature

Thermostat Ts010

[1] : accessed on 19/01/2010

Thermmostat VisionPro8000

[2]: accessed on 19/01/2010

Thermostat T1050

[3] : accessed on 19/01/2010 accessed on 19/01/2010

PIC model 10F222

[4] : accessed on 23/01/2010

PIC model 12F683

[5] : accessed on 23/01/2010

PIC model 16F877A

[6] : accessed on 23/01/2010

Temperature sensor LM35

[7] : accessed on 25/01/2010

Temperature LM56

[8] : accessed on 25/01/2010

Temperature Sensor SHT75

[9] : sensor-SHT7x.pdf accessed on 1/02/2010

High level language and low level language

[10] : accessed on 29/01/2010

What is GSM and the different band

[11] : accessed on 04/02/2010

How Gsm work

[12] : accessed on 04/02/2010

What is SMS

[13] : accessed on 06/02/2010

How SMS work

[14] : accessed on 08/02/2010

GSM modem

[15] : accessed on 26/01/2010

Bluetooth and Infrared

[16] : accessed on 30/01/2010

Bibliography :

1) How Wireless Work

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