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The history of the muscle car
The muscle car
Muscle Car Definition
when most people think of a muscle car they think of a mid-size model car, with V8 engines, generally produced between 1960 and 1973. Most muscle cars were current mid-size models being produced [The passive voice is a form of "be" (being) and a participle (produced). Over-use of the passive voice can make paragraphs tedious to read and officious. Try to use the active voice most often, e.g., the student completed the paper on time. The passive voice version--The paper was completed on time by the student--See eCampus>CWE>Tutorials & Guides>Grammar & Writing Guides>Active & passive voice] by car manufacturers, and they added a large V8 engine, special trim, and usually better handling and performance options like suspension, braking, etc. intended for maximum acceleration on the street or in drag racing competition. It is ["It is" is an awkward phrase if "it" is not clearly a thing] distinguishable from sports cars, which were customarily considered [Passive voice] smaller, two-seat cars, intended for high-speed touring and possibly road racing. But really [Clearer writing suggestion--"real" or "really" means "existing in actuality"--it adds little to the meaning (and using it to mean "big," "very," or "genuine" is slang); replace it with a more expressive word] the firs muscle car every made was a 1949 Oldsmobile Rocket 88. But it wasn't tell 1951 that the Oldsmobile Rocket 88 got [Doctoral rule (although good advice for any academic writer)--"got" is informal English and can mean many things; in academic writing, use forms of "arrive at," "can," "could", "grows," "is able to," etc.] really famous with the creation of the Hudson Hornet the first of the American muscle car to be a famous race car.
How can you [Eliminate second person (you, your) in academic documents and avoid addressing the reader directly. Use third-person pronouns (he, she, it, they)] tell if a car is a Muscle Car? [Unless in a quote, avoid rhetorical questions in academic writing]
First the particular car would likely be a limited production version of a street car, like the Boss 302 Mustang and the Mach 1/GT's. It had some kind of performance suspension designed for going from 0 [Write out numbers under 10] to 100 as quickly as possible or to handle well on a track and often to do both. Second it will have some kind of high output motor or the biggest motor that could be stuffed [Passive voice] under the hood,
Till [Check spelling: Although often used interchangeably, for greatest clarity in academic writing, use "until" to mean a length of time yet to lapse, "till" to mean turning the soil, and avoid 'til altogether] the end of 1950s, car manufacture was monopolized [Passive voice] by England, France, Italy, and America, etc. But during the 1960s they saw a drastic change in the market as European manufacturers started adopting better technology that resulted in innovative models. Meanwhile, Japan too started successfully manufacturing automobiles in a major way, starting with its Keicar.
The most common muscle car you [second person] think of is probably the Ford Mustang. But the mustang wasn't always made by ford originally it was made by Shelby. Then in Mustang debuted in 1965, but did [Remove comma if the following is not an independent clause] you [second person] know that it wasn't the firt muscle car envented the first mucsle car was an Oldsmobile Rocket 88 car companies have been fighting trying to see who could think of a way to make the most powerful and fastest car ever since the first car was produced [Passive voice] in 1885,. then in 1949 Oldsmobile accomplished that goal with the creation of the Oldsmobile Rocket 88 the very first muscle car to be produced. [Passive voice] After that Performance stayed the for the next 6 [Write out numbers under 10] year.
But Then in 1955 Chrysler invented the C-300 on of the classics putting them on top with there performance. The C-300 had a 300 horse power Hemi engine the most powerful engine at that time making the C-300 American fastest and mots powerful car manufactured in 1955 which [Use "that" for a restrictive phrase (or place a comma before "which")] included the Ford Thunderbird, the Corvette, and the Chevy Bel Air. The reason the C-300 was more powerful then all those other cars was that the Hemi engine could could [Typographical error: eliminate duplicate word (if on the same line)] go from from [Typographical error: eliminate duplicate word (if on the same line)] zero to sixty [Express numbers higher than nine in digits (when not the first word in the sentence)] in 9.8 seconds and it had a top speed of 130 mph. But these performance numbers were nothing compared to what they would see during the next decade. Because as the other car company's climbed up in the competition, the cars became more powerful. There for the American muscle car era was born.
The muscle car era coincided with the baby boom generation at the end of World War II, as the soldiers came home there babies were everywhere! And [In academic writing, avoid starting a sentence with a conjunction ] cars during WWII and after were pretty [Vague wording--"pretty" is a weak word (old Fifties slang) if used to mean "very." It means "attractive." Use "very" or another adjective.] conservative in their styling and speed. So the Chop Shops and performance shops sprung up quickly as the war came to an end, leading to the birth of the hot rod. But the only problem was that it was to [Misspelling: too] expensive, and took a lot of [Only commercial shipments and real estate are measured in lots. To use "a lot of" to mean "many," "much," or "a large amount" is a colloquialism (not universally clear). Use another term.] effort and time to modify a car. But It was not economical possible for most people at that time.
But it was a lot [Avoid using "lots" or "a lot of"] cheaper to make a muscle because of the factory maintenance so they was able to sell the muscle cars for a lot [Avoid using "lots" or "a lot of"] less so which [Use "that" for a restrictive phrase (or place a comma before "which")] is what made muscle cars such successful sellers with the new baby boomers. But since [Check word choice: "Since" is more precise in referring to time ("after that"); otherwise use "because"] it was cheaper certain models lacked in power and speed. But by the 1960's [Check spelling: if the preceding is a year, following the year with apostrophe-s means possessive; leave out the apostrophe before s] that all changed
This is the decade [Passive voice] that built the muscle car specifically for the drag racing crowds. It's [Check spelling: If meant to be "it is," avoid contractions in formal writing--write it out; if meant as the possessive of "it," remove the apostrophe. The possessive form of "it" is "its"] also the decade that made the muscle cars we [Use "we," "us," or "our" to mean yourself and coauthors, not general humanity (or yourself and the reader)] think of today was invented. [Passive voice] Such as [Beginning with these words, the following is most likely a sentence fragment] [Check word choice: "such as" refers to things that are exactly what you are discussing; "like" means something similar to what you are discussing] the charger, GTO, Chevelle, Mustangs, Firebird, and Camaros.
In the early '60s [Check punctuation--Single quotation marks are only for a quotation within a quotation. Otherwise, use double quotes ] the only American sports car that was counted [Passive voice] as a muscle car was the Chevy Corvette at a price that was way too high for most. The Ford Thunderbird had grown into a large luxury car (and Ford heard many complaints about this). Imported sports cars, mostly from England, were selling well. Within a few years the post-war baby boomers would be buying their first car. The Mustang II concept car generated a lot of [Avoid using "lots" or "a lot of"] excitement and led directly to the first Mustang less than a year later.
The 1960s also saw the opportunity of pony cars and muscle cars in America, where [If not referring to a place, use "in which"] performance of vehicles mattered the most. The Ford Mustang was another popular car of this period and enjoyed a great deal of fanfare till Chevrolet released its Camaro Z28 in 1967, to compete with it. Ford in turn accepted the challenge and brought forth the Mustang Boss 302 and the Mustang Boss 429 in 1969, which again was lapped [Passive voice] up by people in general.
Then in 1964 Pontiac made one of the big brake through in muscle car history with the Pontiac Tempest. The GTO package on this model added a 389 V8 engine, and a floor-shifted transmission, as well as [No comma before "as well as" (which means "in addition to" and is not a conjunction the equivalent of "and")] special trims and GTO badges being [Doctoral rule (but good advice for any academic writer)--If not a noun (as in "human being"), the word "Being" is hard to imagine; it means "existing." Try to rewrite this without using "being"--with words like "attending," "working," "living," "experiencing," simply "as"--or even removing "being" completely] the fastest muscle car made that year. The only problem was that GM Corporate had a policy at this time [Wordiness: these words mean simply "now"] that did not allow anything other than a full size model to have anything larger than a 330 cid engine. So Pontiac's engineers decided to work around that policy by offering the 389 cid engine as an option as well, instead of creating a new model for it. Pontiac planned on selling 5,000 GTO's that first year; but instead they ended up selling 32,450 GTO's that first year putting them way over there goal.
In 1967 GMC decided to come out with the Chevrolet Camaro. After watching ford two years making money off the Ford Mustangs success, General Motors finally launched its entry into the high performance [Spelling--as an adjective, these two words should be a single hyphenated word] pony car segment introducing the Chevrolet Camaro. Although available with a mediocre six cylinder for volume sales, the Camaro also could be equipped [Passive voice] with several V8s and a bunch of performance options. the [A sentence begins with a capital letter (or is this an incomplete sentence?)] Z/28- would change the industry of muscle card view of fast pony cars forever.
the [Needs capital letter] "Camaro" was named [Passive voice] after the French word for "comrade," even no some peaple argued that it was actually [Cliché: "actual" and "actually" are weak words whose meaning is nothing more than "in point of fact." They are often used as intensifiers but usually can be deleted with no change in meaning ] Spanish for a type of shrimp. Not exactly a good name for a new pony car. Luckily, the Camaro had the muscle to back it up.
The Camaro was based [Passive voice] on the 1968 Chevy Novas model and it featured a uniqe [Word choice--use "an"] body structure from the windshield and firewall back, with a separate steel rail subframe for everything up front.
The Camaro was available from the start in hardtop coupe and convertible body styles, and could [Punctuation: remove the comma if the following is not an independent clause (could not be a sentence by itself) OR is not the last element in a series of more than two] be order with nearly 80 factory options and it had up to 40 different dealer accessories options, including three main option packages and a choice of four different engines.
The RS package included numerous cosmetic changes including a blacked out grill with hidden headlights, revised parking and tail lights, upgraded interior trim, and RS badging. Of greater interest to enthusiasts was the SS package which [Use "that" for a restrictive phrase (or place a comma before "which")] included as standard equipment a modified 350 cid V8 (the first 350 engine Chevy ever offered) with an available 396 cid big block producing 325bhp (L35) and later a 375bhp version, along with simulated air-intakes on the hood, special bumble bee striping, and a blacked out grill. It was [Avoid "it is," etc.] possible to order both the RS and SS packages, and get a RS/SS Camaro, in which case the RS badging took precedence. Camaro popularity soared when a RS/SS Convertible with the 396 paced the 1967 Indianapolis 500 race.
In December 1966, Chevrolet then quietly released one of the most famous options codes of all time, option Z-28. Unpublicized and unknown by most of the buying public (and most Chevrolet sales people [The preceding two words are spelled as one word] for that matter) and not mentioned in any sales literature, the only way someone could order the Z-28 package was to order a base Camaro with the Z-28 option, mandatory front disc brakes with power assist, and the Muncie 4-speed transmission. You [second person] could not order the SS package, automatic transmission, air conditioning, or the convertible. What you [second person] got was a unique 302 cid small block (Non-California emission cars were labeled [Passive voice] MO while [Clearer writing suggestion--"While" is accurate in linking simultaneous events (in the sense of "during")--otherwise use "although," "whereas," "and," or "but"] California emission engines were labeled [Passive voice] MP) that was created [Passive voice] by taking the 327 block and installing the short-stroke 283 crank. Specifically designed to compete in the Club of America Trans Am racing series which [Use "that" for a restrictive phrase (or place a comma before "which")] placed a 305 cid limit on its entries, the Z-28 was available to the public solely to qualify the car for racing. Advertised horsepower was listed [Passive voice] at just 290bhp, which was not very impressive until one hooked it up to a dyno and got actual [see above] readings of 360-400 bhp. The Z-28 also came with a competition suspension, broad racing stripes on the hood and trunklid and could be combined [Passive voice] with the RS option package. There was ["There was" is an awkward phrase if "there" is not clearly a location] no Z-28 badging at all, lest it attract to much attention. The Z-28 proved to be difficult to launch on the street because its high reving engine was lethargic under 4000rpm and worked best when it was shifted [Passive voice] at 7500rpm (!). Once it got going, the Z28 was tough to beat and boosted a 140mph top speed and numerous racing victories. Only 602 Z-28s were sold in 1967, making it a truly [Clearer writing suggestion--"truly" means "in a true manner" (as opposed to a false or lying manner), and this does not appear to be the intention. In casual conversation this word can mean "accurately," "most clearly," or "indeed," but avoid it in academic writing or especially an international business communication] desirable collectable.
But the each year, muscle cars kept on getting bigger and heavier, due to [Check word usage: This phrase is most accurate in referring to something owed ($5 due) or an arrival time (due at 6:00)--try "because" or "because of"] added options. This lead [Check spelling: unless this is a noun (as in "team lead") or a present/future verb ("they will lead the charge"), the past-tense verb is spelled "led" (as a noun, "lead" is the metal in cannon balls)] to a new breed of stripped-down muscle cars, such as the Plymouth Road Runner and Dodge Super Bee. These were designed [Passive voice] to cost less than most the other models, without the extra options and plush interior. They were designed [Passive voice] to be cheap race car, that [Remove comma before "that" preceding a restrictive phrase (otherwise replace "that" with "which")] way there you could go race the same day you bought the car without any modifications and still win!
Chrysler introduced the viable pony cars in 1970 with the introduction of the Challenger and the newly designed Barracuda.
The 1970's [Check spelling: if the preceding is a year, following the year with apostrophe-s means possessive; leave out the apostrophe before s] started out good. It was [Avoid "it is," etc.] consider by most as the pinnacle year for the classic muscle cars. Then the world changed when the fuel prices began to rise, the insurance companies started raising rates and the economy began to slow down.
By 1975, most muscle cars had been discontinued [Passive voice] or heavily downgraded, effectively ending the muscle car era. Because performance was no longer a consideration for the automotive customer was looking for fuel economy, and not [Punctuation: remove the comma if the following is not an independent clause (could not be a sentence by itself) OR is not the last element in a series of more than two] power and [Check punctuation--insert a comma before this word if this is the last in a list of more than two--or if it begins a new clause] speed in there performance. Because of that the ‘ Hemi Cuda and Challenger stopped getting manufacturer, and The Chargers and Chevelles were now [Clearer writing suggestion--Unless you are making a philosophical statement (Now is the time to improve myself) or mean "as of the present time" (the business is now known as Ajax Corp.), consider removing "now"--since this is being read after the time you wrote it, "now" is in the past] sold as mid-priced luxury cars. The only cars to continue the tradition were the Firebird and the Camaro. Even no, they weren't as powerful as they had been just a few years earlier.
Nothing much happened to change that until the Ford Mustang was reintroduced [Passive voice] in 1979 as a performance model. When Henry Ford decided that the market had rested long enough.
Then in 1982 the mucsle car era came back when a new Camaro and Firebird were manufacterd. Then In 1984 Chevrolet introduced a new Corvette. So Buick decided to shake things [Vagueness--"things" is a wording gimmick to avoid further description] up with the Grand National. So by 1987 the Grand National had become one of the best muscle cars ever. Power and speed was back. So Muscle cars continued to improve all the way to the turn of the century.
The cars kept getting better and better by the late 1990's [Check spelling: if the preceding is a year, following the year with apostrophe-s means possessive; leave out the apostrophe before s] these new muscle cars out did their classic muscle cars in every category. Performance, comfort, reliability and fuel consumption were all much better than they were in the 1960s.
surprisingly, no one was worried that the Sales went down on all the muscle cars across America. Because General [A job title is not capitalized unless it is the first word in a sentence or associated with the name of a person or institution, e.g., Certified Public Accountant John Doe. If not, it is just a label, such as auto mechanic, nuclear physicist, fry cook, brain surgeon, professor, etc.] motors even stopped production of the Camaro and Firebird in 2002.
The fourth-generation Chevrolet Camaro debuted for the 1993 model year on an updated F-body platform. It would retain the same characteristic since [Check word choice: "Since" is more precise in referring to time ("after that"); otherwise use "because"] the first-generation's introduction back in 1967; 2-doors, 2+ [Write out numbers under 10] 2 seating, available as a coupe (with optional T-top roof) or , [Avoid leaving a space before a comma] rear-wheel drive, and a choice of V6 and V8 power plants [The preceding two words are spelled as one word] . The 1998 model year was refreshed [Passive voice] and revised with both exterior and engine changes. The fourth-gen Camaro would last up through the 2002 model year when General Motors discontinued production due to [Avoid "due to," try "because" or "because of"] slow sales, a deteriorated sports coupe market, and plant overcapacit.